Food & Environment

Tc Chau
Mind Map by Tc Chau, updated more than 1 year ago
Tc Chau
Created by Tc Chau over 5 years ago
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food and environment

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Food & Environment
  1. Impact of food production on the environment
    1. ploughing
      1. sewing seeds
        1. fertilizers
          1. farm machinery
            1. transporting crops and final products
              1. washing
                1. manufacturing
                  1. packaging
                    1. Global temperature may rise by 4C by end of century. (IPCC, 2007)
    2. Impact of food production greenhouse gas (GHG) emission
      1. modern food system depends on fossil fuels- natural gas for fertilisers and oil for farming machinery
        1. EU- 10%
          1. UK -22%
            1. Ireland- 28%
              1. due to large number of ruminant livestock
          2. Livestock provides 18% of all GHG emission
        2. Key green house gases (GHG)
          1. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)- 85% of UKs global warming contribution
            1. Methane (CH4)- digestion of cellulose, global warming potential 23x higher than CO2
              1. Nitrous oxide (N2O)- from land fertlisers, 296x higher than CO2
                1. Flurocarbons- used in refrigeration
                  1. world per capita meat consumption has double since 1960s
          2. Impact of food production on water usage
            1. 85% global freshwater consumption for agriculture
              1. 5000L virtual water consumed per head per day
                1. Maize- 900m3 per tonne
                  1. Wheat- 1300m3 per tonne
                    1. Husked rice- 3000m3 per tonne
                      1. Coffee- 20,000m2 per tonne
                        1. Beef- 15,000m2 per tonne
            2. Water in food manufacturing
              1. as a product (bottled, juice)
                1. Processing: boiling, washing, cleaning, steaming
                  1. 8-15% of all water used in industry in Europe
              2. Impact of food production on soil quality
                1. soil highly, complex mix of small rock particles, organic matter, water, bacteria, nematodes, fungi and water vapour
                  1. takes 3000- 12000 years to produce enough soil to form productive land
                    1. intensive farming has depleted soil quality- minerals
                      1. poorly irrigated/ drained land leads to build up of salt- poison soil
                2. Soil erosion
                  1. over cultivation/ over grazing can break down physical structure of the soil
                    1. as can wind/ water erosion
                      1. 16% total land area of EU affected by soil degradtion
                        1. ploughing is a major contributor to soil erosion
                          1. new low impact system. e.g no till (tickles the soil just enough to plant seed)
                  2. Impact of food production on biodiversity
                    1. depletion of plants and animal
                      1. destruction of habitats loss of genetic diversity
                        1. vulnerability to pests and disease
                          1. loss of potential food and medical crops
                            1. decline in variability in ecosystem
                    2. Energy and oil
                      1. developed countries 10-14% total energy used is in food production
                        1. oil predominant fuel in food production
                          1. 1/2 energy to process and produce food comes from oil
                            1. prices likely to rise in real terms by 35% by 2035 - with currently rise in food price
                      2. Food miles
                        1. distance food travels within the UK +50% in 20 years
                          1. Air transport uses 37x more fuel than shipping
                            1. Road freight uses 4x the energy of rail
                              1. In 2000, the average food item in the US had travelled 2400-3200km
                        2. Impact of environmental change on food production
                          1. not just food production which effects the environment
                            1. changes in environment are and will continue to affect food production
                              1. rise in ground level temperature
                                1. may see increase yields of some crop + decrease
                                  1. erratic weather patterns and rainfall could cause crop failures
                          2. Food production impact on the environment
                            1. energy- oil
                              1. GHG
                                1. land clearance
                                  1. biodiversity
                                    1. soil quality
                                      1. water availability
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