Outline and evaluate one social psychological theory of aggression SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

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A-Level Psychology (PSYA3: Aggression) Mind Map on Outline and evaluate one social psychological theory of aggression SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY, created by a a on 05/24/2016.

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Outline and evaluate one social psychological theory of aggression SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
  1. AO2
    1. Bandura (1965)
      1. Repeated bobo doll study but after exposure to model offered all ppts rewards for repeating aggressive behaviour. All groups were equally aggressive. Shows learning takes place regardless of reinforcement but production of behaviours is related to selective reinforcement
      2. Philips (1986)
        1. Daily homicide rates in USA almost always increased following a televised boxing match, suggesting viewers were imitating the aggression they saw
        2. SLT is good at explaining learning in the absence of direct reinforcement, so the idea of vicarious learning is supported
          1. Wolfgang & Ferracuti (1967)
            1. 'Culture of violence’ theory suggests in large societies some subcultures develop norms that sanction violence to a greater degree than the dominant culture, which is helped by SLT as it explains violence both within and between groups
            2. Noble (1975)
              1. 1 kid arriving at Bandura’s experiment was heard saying ‘Look mommy, there’s the doll we have to hit.’ This suggests flaws in Bandura’s study as demand characteristics were evident.
            3. AO1
              1. Bandura & Walters (1963)
                1. Believed aggression couldn’t be explained using traditional learning theory as only direct experiences were seen as responsible for learning new behaviour. SLT suggests we also learn from watching others
                2. Bandura (1986)
                  1. Kids must form mental representations of events in their environment & represent perceived rewards & punishments for behaviour in terms of expectancies. If expectancies for reward are greater than punishment, the behaviour will be replicated in the future
                  2. Skinner’s operant conditioning: kids need direct reinforcement to learn behaviour. Bandura’s SLT, kids can just observe. They can also see the consequences & learn from that (vicarious reinforcement)
                    1. Self efficacy: kids develop confidence in their aggression when they form definite expectancies of the reward/ punishment balance
                      1. Bandura et al. (1961)
                        1. Bobo Doll exp. Ppts were m & f kids aged 3-5 yrs. ½ were exposed to adults acting aggressively toward a bobo doll, ½ saw an adult being non aggressive to a bobo doll
                          1. Kids were then taken to a room to play with some toys, one of which was a bobo doll. Kids in aggressive situation reproduced physical & verbal aggression toward the doll. 1/3 in aggression condition reproduced verbal aggression (POW!) will none of non-aggressive condition kids did. Boys imitated more physical aggression than girls, but verbal was equal
                      2. IDA
                        1. Cultural differences
                          1. !Kung San of the Kalahari Desert, aggression is very rare as acts of aggression between children are ignored without any punishment or reward, and even aggressive postures are devalued by the society
                          2. Ethical issues
                            1. Difficult to test SLT without any. Exposing kids to aggression is unethical, so studies like Bandura’s can’t be carried out anymore. This makes it difficult to prove or disprove the theory any further
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