Youth in Nazi Germany 1933-1945

BethanyKJN
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

AS level History Germany 1933-1945 (Nazi organisations and the coordination of German society) Mind Map on Youth in Nazi Germany 1933-1945, created by BethanyKJN on 02/20/2014.

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BethanyKJN
Created by BethanyKJN over 5 years ago
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Youth in Nazi Germany 1933-1945
1 Nazi Ideology
1.1 'He who owns the youth gains the future'
1.2 Education and youth was tool for indoctrinating Germany
1.2.1 'When an opponent declares 'i will not come over to your side' i calmly say 'your child already belongs to us ... you will pass on. Your descendants, however, stand in the new camp. In a short time they will know nothing else apart from his new community' Hitler
2 Education
2.1 Indirect Control
2.1.1 A number of teachers were dismissed on grounds of political unreliability or because they were jewish
2.1.2 Teachers were pressurised in to joining the National Teachers League
2.1.3 Nazi officials Kept an eye on what was happening in schools
2.2 Direct control
2.2.1 Schools were run on the Fuhrerprinzip. Head teachers were appointed from outside schools and the staff would just have to accept them
2.2.2 Vetting of textbooks was undertaken by local Nazi committees after 1933
2.2.3 Napola Schools which were boarding schools were set up for boys between the ages of 10-18, gave them a military style education
2.2.3.1 Drill
2.2.3.2 Physical education
2.2.3.3 Manual labour
2.2.3.4 Political indoctrination
2.2.4 Adolf Hitler schools also provided a military education
2.2.4.1 Were more selective than Napalo school because they were intended for the future elite Nazis
2.2.5 Ordensburgen (castles of the order) were large boarding schools for further education
2.2.5.1 25-30 year olds
2.2.5.2 Designed to complete the training of selected youths after school, army service and professional training
2.2.5.2.1 'Finishing schools for the future leadership'
2.3 Universities
2.3.1 Nazis downgraded importance of academic education and stressed physical education and political indoctrination
2.3.2 Access to higher education was selective on political reliability
2.3.2.1 Women were restricted to only 10%
2.3.2.2 Jews were restricted to 1.5% of the entire population
2.3.3 Under the Law for the Re-establishment of the Professional Civil Service
2.3.3.1 1,200 university staff were dismissed on political or racial grounds
2.3.3.1.1 15% of the total amount of staff
2.3.4 November 1933: all university lecturers had to sign 'a declaration of support for Hitler and the National Socialist State'
2.3.4.1 In addition, all university Lecturers had to join the Nazi Lecturers League
2.3.4.1.1 New lecturers had to go on a training course where they were subjected to political indoctrination and physical training
2.3.5 Students had to join the German Students League (DS)
2.3.5.1 25% managed to avoid this however
2.3.6 Students had to attend a twice weekly political indoctrination and physical training sessions
2.3.6.1 Also had to do 4 months labour service and 2 months SA camp
2.3.6.1.1 It was felt that this would give students an experience of real life
2.3.7 University curriculum was modified especially in German, biology, history and geography
3 Hitler youth and League of German Girls
3.1 Boys
3.1.1 1932: 1.5% of youth population 1934: 46.5% 1936: 62.8% 1938: 77.2% 1939: membership made compulsory
3.1.2 6-10 Plimpfen (Cubs) 10-14 Deutsches jung (German Youth) 14-18 Hitler Jugen (Hitler Youth)
3.1.2.1 Resented the harsh punishments that were imposed for minor infringements of the rules
3.1.3 Moto: 'Live faithfully, fight bravely and die laughing'
3.1.4 Activities were mainly physical and and military based
3.1.4.1 Competition
3.1.4.2 Struggle
3.1.4.3 Heroism
3.1.4.4 Leadership
3.1.5 They had to swear a personal oath of loyalty to the fuhrer
3.2 Girls
3.2.1 Moto: 'Be faithful, Be pure and be German
3.2.2 10-14 Jung Madel (Young Girls) 14-18 Bund Deutsch Madel (League of German Girls) 18-21 Glaube and Schonheit (Faith and Beauty)
3.2.3 They were taught hygiene, cleanliness and healthy eating
3.2.3.1 Formation dancing and group gymnastics
3.2.3.1.1 Taught handicrafts, sewing and cooking
3.2.4 Summer camps were high structured
3.2.4.1 Sports, physical exercise, route marching, indoctrination, flag waving and saluting
3.2.5 Faith and Beauty
3.2.5.1 Taught women baby care and ballroom dancing along with social skills
3.2.6 Membership became compulsory in 1939
3.2.7 Many girls found it liberating because it helped them developed a sense of comradeship
3.2.7.1 Also it was relatively classless and so it brought together girls from a wide range of backgrounds
3.2.8 The BMD also instructed girls on marriage
3.2.8.1 'Only the best German soldier is suitable for you, for it is your responsibility to keep the blood of the nation pure. German girl, your honor lies in being faithful to the blood of your race' Jutte Rudiger leader of the BDM
4 How successful were the Nazis? Did life change that much for the German youth?
4.1 Enthusiasm
4.1.1 A great time with out danger
4.1.2 Thought that they were following a great movement
4.2 Conformity for career reasons
4.2.1 Many people thought that they would find job opportunities through persecution of Jews and Marxists
4.2.2 Can see well paid posts in public administration and party apparatus
4.3 Conformity through fear
4.3.1 No longer a matter of youthful rebellion
4.3.2 Children whose parents are avowed opponents of the Nazis may have just said yes many times simply because they were afraid
4.4 Conformity through natural obedience
4.4.1 We are politically programmed to answer 'yes sir' and obey orders and to stand to attention
4.5 Non-compliance
4.5.1 Frequent dodging of the Hitler Youth
4.5.2 Violation of Nazi prohibitions
4.5.3 Sharp decline in HJ events
4.5.4 Membership fees frequently unpaid
4.6 Critism and opposition
4.6.1 The Nazis made particularly large promises but did not fulfill them
4.6.2 Many were feeling increasing irritated by the lack of freedom
4.6.3 Youngsters aged between 12 and 17 going around with musical instruments and young females late at night
4.6.4 Inscribing on walls of pedestrian subways with slogans 'down with Hitler' and 'Medals for Murder'

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