Science: Ecology

Jamie  W
Mind Map by Jamie W, updated more than 1 year ago
Jamie  W
Created by Jamie W over 5 years ago
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6-7 Science (Ecology) Mind Map on Science: Ecology, created by Jamie W on 06/13/2016.

Resource summary

Science: Ecology
  1. Cells
    1. Plants contain plant cells and animals contain animal cells.
      1. An animal cells is much simpler than the plant cell. This is because plant make their own food however animals do not. Plant cells contain chloroplasts which is where photosynthesis happens.
        1. Nucleus: contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell. Cytoplasm: most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes. Cell membrane: controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
          1. The plant cell has additional things- Cell wall: strengthens the cell. Chloroplasts: contains chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis to happen. Permanent vacuole: filled with cell sap to keep the cell turgid (enlarged and swollen with water).
          2. Predators and Prey
            1. An example of a predator is that of a lion, tiger, wolf and alligator. An example of prey is snail, gazelle, deer and rabbit.
              1. Predators and prey are involved in food chains and food webs...
              2. Food Chains
                1. The arrows in a food chain represent the flow of energy through the ecosystem.
                  1. Organisms like algae and phytoplankton are primary producers. They photosynthesise to make their own food, however animals then eat them. Plankton and algae are eaten by jellyfish. This animal is called a herbivores. They are then eaten by primary consumers like sea turtles. The energy is passed through the animals but some is lost through things like faeces, movement and reproduction. The primary consumers are then eaten by secondary consumers like sharks. You now have a food chain!
                  2. Pyramid of Biomass
                    1. It can be difficult to make a pyramid of biomass as;there might be issues measuring dry biomass and an organism may belong to moer than one trophic level.
                      1. The wider the bar, the bigger biomass is has. The pyramid of biomass can look very different to the numbers...
                        1. In this example, the biomass of the producer is greatest and the sparrow hawk the least.
                        2. Habitats and Adaptations
                          1. A habitat, or a biome, is the type of environment in which plants and animals live. A habitat is dictated by what kinds of plants grow there, the climate and the geography. Rainforests, coral reefs and tundras are all habitats where particular plant can be found.
                            1. Animals and plant adapt to their surroundings however can take centuries! One adaptation example is that of an elephant; big ears for good hearing, fat pads to absorb shock energy in feet and many more.
                              1. There are behavioural adaptations and physical adaptations. Both effect the animal or plant.
                                1. Some adaptations make animals or plants thrive while others... don't really help at all!
                                2. Investigation of Natural Habitats
                                  1. Various tools are used to do this. For example a Quadrat which is a square 1/2 metre by 1/2 metre. It is used to study the distribution of an item covering a large area.
                                    1. A trundle Wheel has the exact circumference of 1 metre so that every time it does a full rotation, the length can be counted easily. It makes a click every time it does this. It can be used for long-distance measurements like the perimeter of a field.
                                      1. A Transect is a process where scientists measure using quadrants in a staring line.
                                      2. Photosynthesis
                                        1. A plant takes in CO2 and water in order to make glucose and oxygen. It uses the sunlight to change these two compounds into a sugar.
                                          1. Photosynthesis can be effected by things called limiting factors. Some limiting factors of photosynthesis include temperature, carbon dioxide levels and the light intensity.
                                            1. Plants turn the glucose into starch as it is not water soluble. The change is a reversible change so it can be changed back into glucose.
                                              1. This process takes place in the chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll (a green substance). In the cross section of a leaf, it takes place mostly in the palisade cells. As well as this it takes place, not as much, in the spongy mesophyll.
                                                1. There are air gaps between the mesophyll to allow easy gas exchange. Respiration in plants takes in O2 and gives out CO2 whereas photosynthesis takes in CO2 and gives out O2. The symbol equation for photosynthesis is; H2O + CO2 --> O2 + C6H12O6.
                                              2. Food Webs
                                                1. It is a system of interlocking, independent food chains.
                                                  1. If for example the population of slugs decreased, so would the rest of the species as one thing can impact many. If rabbits and insects also eat grass, with not many slugs around, the is more grass for other species so they would thrive. Their populations would increase. But in turn, other animals would have to eat more insects, and all that is left is the rabbit. They would over populate! Some animals can eat more of one thing, while others may starve or die...
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