Improvements In surgery 1845-1919

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Mind Map on Improvements In surgery 1845-1919, created by mollycupper on 04/25/2013.

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Created by mollycupper over 6 years ago
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Improvements In surgery 1845-1919
1 Anaesthetics
1.1 1799- FIRST Anaesthetic = Nitrous Oxide (Davey)
1.1.1 Not strong enough, made people giggle
1.2 1846- SECOND Anaesthetic= Ether (Liston)
1.2.1 Vomiting, Flammable, Irritant Knocked out patient for a long time,
1.3 1847- BEST Anaesthetic (Simpson)
1.3.1 Hannah Greener died from overdose along with many others
1.3.2 1848- JOHN SNOW - chloroform inhaler Queen Victoria used it succesfully
2 Antiseptics
2.1.1 Noticed women getting 'child bed fever' from bacteria carried across from the surgery theatre to the labour room on surgeons hands His big idea- wash hands with chlorinated solution No one listened- he had no evidence
2.2.1 Suggested the use of Carbolic Acid To sterilise doctor's tools and hands Made an improvement, to a carbolic spray to sterilise operating table and air around Antiseptic ligatures
2.2.2 People believed him over Semmelweis Read Pasteur's Germ theory
3 Blood Transfusions
3.1 FIRST transfusions- to give murderers peaceful characteristics
3.1.1 Died in agony
3.2 Problems with Blood loss
3.2.1 Patients = bleed to death
3.2.2 Difficult for surgeon to see what they are doing
3.2.3 Slippery surfaces and tools- dangerous
3.2.4 How they dealt with it Turniquet Ligatures Cauterisation
3.3 1901- Karl Lansteiner- blood groups A, B and O
3.3.1 AB discovered 1902
3.4 1915- Lewisonn
3.4.1 Sodium nitrated added to blood- stopped clotting.
3.5 1916- Rous and Turner
3.5.1 Citrate glucose- blood lasted longer
3.6 1917- First Blood Bank

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