Bethan Clark
Mind Map by Bethan Clark, updated more than 1 year ago
Bethan Clark
Created by Bethan Clark almost 7 years ago


Biology Mind Map on Cloning, created by Bethan Clark on 04/25/2013.

Resource summary

1 Tissue Culture
1.1 1) Parent plant with desired characteristics is selected
1.1.1 2) A few cells are scraped off into several beakers containing nutrients and hormones 3) A week or two later there are lots of genetically identical plants growing
1.2 The process must be aseptic (carried out in the absence of harmful bacteria) otherwise the plants will rot
2 Embryo Transplants
2.1 1) Parents with desired characteristics are mated
2.1.1 2) Embryo is removed before the cells become specialised 3) Then they are split into several clumps 4) These embryos are implanted into the uterus of sheep who will give birth to the clones
2.2 The offspring are genetically identical to each other but not to the parents
3 Adult cell cloning
3.1 1) An egg is taken from an ovary of sheep A
3.1.1 2) A cell is taken from the udder of sheep B 3) The egg is enucleated (no nucleus) 4) The udder cell and the enucleated egg are fused with electricity 5) Now an egg has been made that contains DNA from sheep B 6) Cell division happens until an embryo is formed 7) The embryo is implanted into the uterus of sheep A 8)A sheep is born with the DNA from sheep B (a clone of sheep B)
4 Genetic Engineering
4.1 1) An enzyme is used to cut a chromosome so DNA can be removed
4.1.1 2) Another enzyme is used to cut open a bacterial DNA (plasmid) 3) Enzymes are used to insert the piece of human DNA into the plasmid 4) The plasmid is reinserted into a bacterium which divides rapidly
4.2 Benefits: plants and animals can be modified to have desired characteristics
4.3 Disadvantages: costly and a single mistake could create a new genetic disorder, for example.
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