Drug Administration

lhay94
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Second year University Drugs and Disease Mind Map on Drug Administration, created by lhay94 on 03/04/2014.

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lhay94
Created by lhay94 over 5 years ago
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Drug Administration
1 Oral
1.1 Advantages
1.1.1 easy and convenient
1.1.2 no skilled personal required
1.1.3 prep need not be sterile
1.1.4 immune system can cope
1.2 stomach
1.2.1 pH = acidic
1.2.2 Acid drugs
1.2.2.1 mainly non-ionised
1.2.2.2 readily absorbed
1.2.3 Basic drugs
1.2.3.1 mainly ionised
1.2.3.2 poorly absorbed
1.2.4 Neutral drugs
1.2.4.1 readily absorbed
1.3 Duodenum
1.3.1 pH = alkaline
1.3.2 basic drugs => mainly non ionised, readily absorbed
1.3.3 Acidic drugs => mainly ionised, absorption restricted
1.4 Disadvantages
1.4.1 effects are slow
1.4.2 absorption maybe incomplete
1.4.3 some drugs to big to be absorbed
1.4.4 some drugs destroyed by gut or liver
2 INHALATION
2.1 Large surface area of alveoli in lungs
2.2 good pulmonary blood supply
2.3 can have local effect on lung
2.4 systemic effects e.g. general anaesthetic
3 INJECTION
3.1 by-pass difficulties of absorption
3.2 drugs must be sterile => by passing immune system
3.3 exact dose is known
3.4 given by skilled staff
4 INTRAVENOUS
4.1 Advantages
4.1.1 rapid effect
4.1.2 lage volumes can be used
4.1.3 Irritant solutions can be used
4.2 Disadvantages
4.2.1 rapid delivery to heart, CNS => side effects
4.2.2 cannot recall drug
5 INTRAMUSCULAR & SUB-CUTANEOUS
5.1 Advantages
5.1.1 controlled onset with drug vehicle
5.1.2 aqueous - rapid effect
5.1.3 oily -slow effect
5.2 Disadvantages
5.2.1 Damage at injection site
5.2.2 Limited to small volumes
6 ROUTES determined by
6.1 drug chemical nature
6.2 how quickly an effect is required
6.3 how the effect needs to be maintained
6.4 patient condition/compliance
6.5 Convenience
6.6 many drugs bind to a plasma protein
6.6.1 bound fraction retained in plasma
6.6.2 unbound fraction diffuses into tissues (active)
7 DISTRIBUTION
7.1 out of plasma into tissues
7.2 move easily into interstitial fluid around tissues, interact with target
7.3 Distribution AWAY from target site => terminate effect
8 BLOOD-BRAIN/BLOOD-PLACENTA BARRIER
8.1 Capillaries in CNS = no pores
8.1.1 only lipophilic drugs can cross capillary membrane
8.2 placenta good barrier
8.2.1 only lipophilic drugs cross to foetus

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