B3 - living and growing

emily98
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Science Mind Map on B3 - living and growing, created by emily98 on 03/04/2014.

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emily98
Created by emily98 over 5 years ago
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B3 - living and growing
1 Molecules of life
2 Molecules of life
2.1 Cell structure
2.1.1 MITOCHONDRIA in the cytoplasm of a cell depends on the activity of the cell.
2.1.1.1 this is because of RESPIRATION occurs in mitochondria
2.1.1.1.1 RIBOSOME are smaller and found in the cytoplasm
2.2 DNA
2.2.1 NUCLEUS contains genes. DNA make up a code and form bases in chromosomes
2.2.1.1 double helix
2.2.1.2 MESSENGER RNA carries DNA to the ribosome to make protein
2.2.2 Discovering the structure
2.2.2.1 Watson and Crick discovered it by -photographers showing double helix -data indicating bases occured in pairs
3 Proteins and mutations
3.1 grouping organisms
3.1.1 proteins: made up of amino acids
3.1.1.1 they have different jobs e.g: structural proteins (collagen). Hormones carry message to control reaction (insulin control blood sugar levels). Carrier (haemoglobin carriers oxygen). Enzymes
3.2 Enzymes
3.2.1 speed up reaction: Biological catalysts
3.2.1.1 work best at a terticular temp and pH
3.3 Mutations
3.3.1 can occur spontaneously, by radiation, or chemicals
4 Respiration
4.1 respiration releases energy from food to be used for many different processes in living organisims
4.2 AERobic respiraion
4.2.1 it involves the use of oxygen.
4.2.2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O
4.3 ANAERobic respiration
4.3.1 Anaerobic respiration is a type of respiration that does not use oxygen. It is used when there is not enough oxygen for aerobic respiration.
4.3.2 glucose -> lactic acid (+energy)
5 Cell division
5.1 multicellular
5.1.1 it means a living organism that has different cells e.g humans
5.1.2 it allows organisms to become more complex and allows cells to take up different jobs. this is called CELL DIFFERENTIATION
5.1.2.1 needs to allows communication between cells, supply cells with nutrients, control changes within the environment
5.2 Mitosis
5.2.1 produces new cells for growth
5.2.2 two genetically identical cells are made
5.3 Meiosis
5.3.1 produces gametes(sex cells)
5.3.1.1 gametes are HAPLOID cells because they only contain one chromosone
6 The circulatory system
6.1 Blood
6.1.1 plasma is liquid bit of blood. it transports important substances around your body
6.1.1.1 dissolved food (glucose). carbon dioxide. hormones. plasma protein (antibodies). waste (urea). water. red blood cells.
6.2 vessels
6.2.1 ARTERIES - these carry blood AWAY from the heart
6.2.1.1 CAPILLARIES - these are involved in the exchange of materials at the tissue
6.2.1.1.1 VEINS - these carry blood TO the heart
6.3 The heart
6.3.1 DOUBLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM : blood pumped to the lungs and returns to the heart to be pumped round body. blood is at a higher pressure and flows to tissue faster
7 Growth and development
7.1 measuring growth
7.1.1 two main phrases of rapid growth: just after birth, adolescene (puberty)
7.1.2 3 ways of measuring
7.1.2.1 length: easy but only measures growth in one direction
7.1.2.2 Dry mass: best way, but organism dies because no water
7.1.2.3 Wet mass: easy to measure but not accurate
7.2 differentiation
7.2.1 stem cells stay undifferentiated. they can develop into anything
7.2.2 process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job
7.2.3 some scientists use embryonic stem cells. But they can be found in adults
7.2.3.1 some people argue against this becuase they believe human embryos shouldnt be used for experiments science they are potential life.
8 New genes for old
8.1 Selective breeding
8.1.1 is where human artifically select the plants/animals that are going to breed and have their genes remain in the population. Its usual to develop best features
8.1.1.1 e.g. maximum yeild of meat, milk etc. good health and disease resistance. speed, attractiveness etc
8.1.1.2 can reduce ALLELES in population (gene pool) increasing risk of harmful recessive characteristics in offspring. or reduction in variation, population cant adapt
8.2 genetic engineering
8.2.1 basic idea is to move genes (sections of DNA) from one organism to another so that it produces useful biological produces
8.2.2 the desired characteristics are selected
8.2.2.1 the genes responsible are identified and removed (isolated)
8.2.2.1.1 the genes are inserted into other organism
8.2.2.1.1.1 the organisms are allowed to reproduce (replicate)
9 Cloning
9.1 cloning animals
9.1.1 it is done by transferring a cell nucleus
9.1.2 dolly the sheep
9.1.2.1 ethical issue
9.2 cloning plants
9.2.1 plants keep there ability to differentiate making them easier to clone
9.2.2 tissue culture
9.2.2.1 a plant is selected that has certain characteristics
9.2.2.1.1 a large number of small pieces of tissue are cut from plant
9.2.2.1.1.1 the small pieces are grown in test tubes containing a growth mineral
9.2.2.1.1.1.1 Aseptic technique is used at all stages to stop any microbes infecting the plant
9.3 it is making an exact cope of another organism. clones are genetically identical

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