Intraspecific

Maisie Embleton
Mind Map by Maisie Embleton, updated more than 1 year ago
Maisie Embleton
Created by Maisie Embleton about 5 years ago
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Description

NCEA Level 3 Science (BIOLOGY: Animal and Plant Responses) Mind Map on Intraspecific, created by Maisie Embleton on 08/18/2016.

Resource summary

Intraspecific
  1. Intraspecific Competition
    1. Behaviour
      1. Agonistic
        1. Aggressive
          1. Social dominance
            1. Used by many species that live in social groups
              1. Hierarchy that allows individuals to know their place
                1. Individuals at the top have access to lots of resources
                  1. While those at the bottom have a chance to move up
                    1. Usually established at the beginning of the organisms lives through fights but if a newcomer joins, opportunity to move up
                2. Competition
                  1. Mates
                    1. Gametes
                      1. Sperm
                        1. Egg
                        2. Energy cost per gamete
                          1. Low
                            1. High
                            2. Amount made
                              1. Many
                                1. Few
                                2. Reproductive interest
                                  1. Fertilise as many eggs as possible
                                    1. Ensure the sperm that fertilises the egg is of the highest quality
                                  2. Territory
                                    1. Area occupied by an animal and defended against others
                                      1. Territorial defense
                                        1. 1. Keep out signal
                                          1. E.g. scent of urine
                                          2. 2. Threat Display
                                            1. E.g. making themselves bigger - cat puffing out their fur
                                            2. 3. Fighting
                                            3. Adaptive Advantage
                                              1. Benefits within territory e.g food, shelter, breeding/mating area
                                              2. Costs
                                                1. Energy and time spent in it's defense
                                          3. Between organisms of the SAME species
                                            1. Intraspecific Co-operation
                                              1. Reproductive Strategies
                                                1. K - selection
                                                  1. Characteristics
                                                    1. Large size of organism
                                                      1. Energy used to make each individual is high
                                                        1. Few offspring are produced
                                                          1. Late maturity, often after a prolonged period of parental care
                                                            1. Long life expectancy
                                                              1. Individuals can reproduce more than once in their lifetime
                                                                1. Type I or Type II survivorship pattern: individuals live to the near maximum of their lifespan
                                                                2. Attempt to ensure the survival of their offspring by investing time in them, instead of lots
                                                                  1. Stable environment, density dependant interactions
                                                                    1. Adaptive Advantages
                                                                    2. r - selection
                                                                      1. Characteristics
                                                                        1. Small size of organism
                                                                          1. Energy used to make individuals is low
                                                                            1. Many offspring are produced
                                                                              1. Early maturity
                                                                                1. Short life expectancy
                                                                                  1. Each individual only reproduces once
                                                                                    1. Type III survival pattern: Most individuals die within a short amount of time but a few live much longer
                                                                                    2. Creates an abundance of offspring with the hopes that a few will make it
                                                                                      1. Adaptive Advantage
                                                                                        1. Unstable environment, density independent
                                                                                        2. r ____._________._________.______.________.__________._________._________._______.____ K bacteria mollusks insects fish amphibians reptiles mammals apes humans
                                                                                        3. Courtship
                                                                                          1. Parental Care
                                                                                          2. All about passing on alleles into the gene pool
                                                                                            1. Group membership
                                                                                              1. Pros
                                                                                                1. Safety
                                                                                                  1. Specific roles within groups
                                                                                                    1. Dilution effect
                                                                                                      1. One predator and 100 people in a population, there is a 1 in 100 chance of being preyed on, rather than one predator and one individual, there is a 1/1 chance of preyed on
                                                                                                      2. Confusion effect
                                                                                                        1. If a predator approaches a group, they gap it in lots of different directions therefore resulting in the predator becoming confused
                                                                                                      3. Mating
                                                                                                        1. Mates availability
                                                                                                          1. Extra protection for young
                                                                                                            1. Learning opportunities for young
                                                                                                            2. Hunting ease
                                                                                                              1. Saving energy
                                                                                                              2. Decreased exposure to elements
                                                                                                                1. Aerodynamics
                                                                                                                2. Cons
                                                                                                                  1. Intraspecific competition
                                                                                                                    1. More visible for predation
                                                                                                                      1. Spread of disease
                                                                                                                      2. Generally intraspecific, organisms of the same species
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