1.1.2 Argues that government is best which governs least.
1.2.1 Life, Liberty and Property
1.3 Rights are entitlements.
1.3.1 Natural Rights are God-given rights.
220.127.116.11 Jefferson argues that natural rights are
unalienable. Why? Because as we are born
humans we have an automatic entitlement to these
1.4 Government should protect our
natural rights. They should do
simply this as well as protect our
freedoms, thus should not exceed
any of their roles:
1.4.1 Should make sure
1.4.2 Property should be protected
and orderly existence should
1.4.3 Common defence
should be provided
2.1 Jeremy Bentham
2.1.1 Called Natural Rights = nonsense on stilts.
18.104.22.168 Believed in concept of utility = the
maximisation of pleasure through the
consumption of material goods.
22.214.171.124.1 Utility is also regarded to be a moral principle
126.96.36.199.1.1 Policies, institutions etc. should be based on utility (how much happiness it causes to people)
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 E.g. 18th Amendment (Prohibition of Alcohol) - in terms of utility would be considered to be morally wrong.
184.108.40.206 Why? Because they do not provide
individuals with stability. They are simply
there and make us believe we are more
worthy then they are. Utility is better as it
truly captures how people are motivated
2.2 James Mill
3 ECONOMIC LIBERALISM
3.1.1 Revival of economic Liberalism in 70's
220.127.116.11 Thatcher and Reagan
18.104.22.168.1 E.L based on market fundamentalism; the extreme belief in the
market, arguing that the market can provide solutions to all our social
and economic problems - such as unemployment
22.214.171.124.2 Unlike Smith, Neoliberals failed to realise fault in market (extreme
belief), they viewed the govt more at fault - WHY? some government
personnel, although sufficient they were not qualified to understand the
complexities of the market. (Hayek) Thus government should be
completely free from any govt interference. (Friedman) critiqued
keynesian economics (promoted by govt) as it simply encouraged tax
and spend and caused inflation however didn't tackle issues such as
126.96.36.199.2.1 Absolute faith in the market
188.8.131.52.2.1.1 Naturally efficient and productive, can respond to our
demands on a macroeconomic level by putting resources to
their most profitable use.
3.2 Adam Smith
3.2.1 disagreed with this idea of mercantilism
184.108.40.206 Mercantilism = government intervention is
encouraged in order to achieve general
3.2.2 Believed that market should regulate themselves in order to achieve general prosperity.
220.127.116.11 Government should be the 'invisible hand'
18.104.22.168.1 Locke argued that government should be like a 'nightwatchman'
22.214.171.124 Should be run
3.2.3 The Wealth of Nations
3.2.4 Links to the idea of rationality; we are
rational beings who have initiative are
capable of enterprise, thus govt. intervention
is not needed
126.96.36.199 We can create an economy/market that is beneficial to us and responds to our demands.
3.3 Laissez-Faire - French
for Leave to Do also
holds this belief in a
'free market' free from
4 SOCIAL DARWINISM
4.1 HERBERT SPENCER.
4.1.1 Used Charles Darwins evolutionary theory and natural selection which suggests we had undergone various mutations, some beneficial
in aiding us to survive. Spencer uses this idea in a social context arguing that society is based on survival of the fittest and the most
competitive will thrive (particularly in a capitalist society)
4.2 SAMUEL SMILES
4.2.1 Self Help
188.8.131.52 Heaven helps those who helps themselves.
4.3 RICHARD COBDEN
4.3.1 Economist; supported working class conditions, however he believed
they could only better their conditions by turning to themselves and own
efforts and not the efforts of Parliament.
4.4 Belief in meritocracy, working hard to achieve and better ones self.