C7: Chemical Industry

jamiemcparlin
Mind Map by jamiemcparlin, updated more than 1 year ago
jamiemcparlin
Created by jamiemcparlin about 7 years ago
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Chemistry (C7: The Chemical Industry) Mind Map on C7: Chemical Industry, created by jamiemcparlin on 29/04/2013.

Resource summary

C7: Chemical Industry
1 Fine Chemicals

Annotations:

  • Made on a small scale
1.1 Drugs
1.2 Food Additives
1.3 Fragrances
2 Bulk Chemicals

Annotations:

  • Made on a large scale
2.1 Ammonia,
2.2 Sulphuric acid
2.3 Sodium Hydroxide
2.4 phosphoric acid
3 Production of chemicals
3.1 Preparation of feedstocks
3.1.1 Synthesis
3.1.1.1 Separation of products
3.1.1.1.1 Handling of by-products and waste
3.1.1.1.1.1 Monitoring Purity
4 Green Chemistry
4.1 Principles for more sustainable processes
4.1.1 Atom economy
4.1.1.1 measure of reactants that end up as useful products
4.1.1.1.1 Atom Economy= (Mass of atoms in useful product / Total mass of atoms in the reactants) x 100
4.1.1.1.2 For good atom economy, the final product should
4.1.1.1.2.1 contain all atoms used in the process
4.1.1.1.2.2 Reduce waste products
4.1.1.1.2.3 Increase yield
4.1.1.1.2.3.1 percentage yield is calculated by Actual yield / theoretical yield x 100
4.1.2 Renewable Feedstocks
4.1.2.1 Renewable raw materials used when possible
4.1.2.2 New materials being developed from plants
4.1.2.2.1 Plants take up a lot of land
4.1.2.2.1.1
4.1.2.2.2 fertilisers used to increase productivity
4.1.2.2.2.1 Fertilisers use a lot of energy during manufacturing
4.1.3 Energy inputs and outputs
4.1.3.1 Energy needed for reaction should be minimised
4.1.3.1.1 this reduces
4.1.3.1.1.1 Environmental impact
4.1.3.1.1.2 Economic impact
4.1.3.2 Processes should be carried out at an ambient temperature and pressure
4.1.4 Health and Safety Risks
4.1.4.1 Substances used are chosen to minimise the risks of chemical accidents
4.1.5 Waste Prevention
4.1.5.1 Methods being devoloped to detect harmful products before they're made
4.1.5.1.1 If it isn't made it doesn't have to be cleaned up
4.1.6 Environmental impact
4.1.6.1 can be reduced by using alternatives to hazardous chemicals such as...
4.1.6.1.1 chemicals that cause minimal harm to people or the environment
4.1.6.1.2 Chemicals that can be broken down into non-toxic substances that don't stay in the environment
4.1.7 Social Benefits
4.1.7.1 Cleaner Air quality
4.1.7.2 Cleaner buildings
4.1.7.3 Improved water quality in rivers and lakes
4.1.8 Economic Benefits
4.1.8.1 Reduced energy costs
4.1.8.2 Great yield- more profit
5 Catalysts
5.1 Reduce the activation energy needed for a reaction
5.1.1 Process is faster
5.1.2 Process can take place at a lower temperature
5.2 Remain unchanged
5.2.1 Allows them to be used again and again
5.2.2 Process is more sustainable
5.3 Enzyme catalysts are used in some processes
5.3.1 This means the reaction must be done at optimum PH and temperature
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