River Management

maddiemurchie23
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Geography (Rivers) Mind Map on River Management, created by maddiemurchie23 on 04/29/2013.

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maddiemurchie23
Created by maddiemurchie23 over 6 years ago
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River Management
1 Hard engineering
1.1 Dams and reservoirs
1.1.1 Huge walls built across rivers to store water
1.1.2 Aims to store water and control the discharge
1.1.2.1 Water is released at a steady flow throughout the year to prevent flooding from high levels of discharge
1.2 Levees
1.2.1 Increasing height of riverbanks and creating parallel riverbanks
1.3 Diversion channels
1.3.1 When the water level is too high the water is diverted elsewhere, often have gates
1.4 Channel straightening
1.4.1 Removal of meanders etc.
1.4.2 Velocity of the river increases due to efficiency increases
1.4.2.1 The water is moved out of the area as quickly as possible
2 Soft engineering
2.1 Land use management (floodplain zoning)
2.1.1 Limiting land use to allow natural flooding
2.1.2 Land used as a sponge to absorb discharge
2.2 Wetland and river bank conservation
2.2.1 Protecting existing river channels and valleys
2.2.2 Conserving wetlands and riverbanks provides natural protection
2.2.2.1 More interception = less discharge
2.3 Forecasts and warnings
2.3.1 Monitoring of weather to predict rainfall to give time to prepare for flooding
2.4 River restoration
2.4.1 Returning rivers back to their original state
2.4.2 Removal of any management methods to allow it to flood naturally upstream to prevent flooding downstream in towns
2.5 Soft engineering: case study
2.5.1 River Quaggy - Tributary of the River Thames
2.5.1.1 Flowing north
2.5.1.2 Source at Locksbottom
2.5.1.3 Large number of green space (unusual)
2.5.2 How was it managed?
2.5.2.1 Artificial channels and culverts underground
2.5.2.2 Widening and deepening was considered - QWAG didn't choose it because it aims to improve the local environment
2.5.3 What methods were used?
2.5.3.1 River was bought back to the surface by cutting a new channel
2.5.3.2 A new lake was created to take water when full
2.5.3.2.1 Holds 85,000 square metres
2.5.3.3 The park was lowered and shaped into a flood plain
2.5.4 Effects
2.5.4.1 Reduced risk of flooding to 600 homes and businesses
2.5.4.2 Created a diverse environment for wildlife
2.5.4.3 Land can't be built on
2.5.4.4 Cost of maintenance
2.5.4.5 Conflict - land is needed for affordable new buildings
2.5.4.6 Doesn't stop flooding overall

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