Unit Two: Tissues

Ashley Gilly
Mind Map by Ashley Gilly, updated more than 1 year ago
Ashley Gilly
Created by Ashley Gilly almost 5 years ago
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Description

Mind map for Anatomy class, Unit 2

Resource summary

Unit Two: Tissues
  1. Cells are organized into tissues
    1. Intercellular Junctions connect cells
      1. Tight Junctions

        Annotations:

        • Close space between cells by fusing cell membranes 
        1. Desmosomes

          Annotations:

          • Bind cells by forming "spot welds" between membranes 
          1. Gap Junctions

            Annotations:

            • Form tubular channels between cells to allow for the exhchange of substances 
        2. Four major kinds
          1. Nervous
            1. Conduct impulses for coordination, regulation (homeostasis), integration, and sensory reception
              1. Found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
                1. Neurons are highly specialized

                  Annotations:

                  • -sense changes in surroundings  -have dendrites, which receive sensory info and transmit the message as an electrical signal to the axon..sends message to the next neuron or to muscles or glands  -function: coordinate, regulate, and integrate 
              2. Brain, spinal cord, nerves
                1. Cells communicate with each other and other body parts
                  1. Neuroglia
                    1. Supporting cells of the nervous tissue
                      1. Some bind and support nervous tissue, some carry phagocytosis

                        Annotations:

                        • Phagocytes protect nervous tissue by engulfing cellular debris, waste, and foreign material 
                        1. Some connect neurons to blood vessels, and some are involved w/ cell-to-cell communication
                2. Muscular
                  1. Movement
                    1. Attached to bones, in hollow internal organs, heart
                      1. Able to contract in response to stimuli
                        1. Muscle cells are also called...

                          Annotations:

                          • Cell fibers 
                          1. Skeletal muscle makes up....% of body weight and smooth and cardiac about...

                            Annotations:

                            • 40%, 10%
                            1. Three types of muscle tissue
                              1. Skeletal

                                Annotations:

                                • Function: move body parts, facial expressions, writing, talking, singing, chewing, swallowing, and breathing 
                                1. Muscles that contain skeletal muscle tissue are usually attached to bones
                                  1. Each cell has many nuclei -> multinucleate
                                  2. voluntary muscle tissue
                                    1. Contract when stimulated by a nerve cell, then relaxed when it is no long stimulated
                                    2. The cells are long, threadlike

                                      Annotations:

                                      • About 40 mm in length and less than .1 mm in width 
                                      1. Contain striations

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Alternating light and dark cross-markings
                                    3. Smooth
                                      1. No striations
                                        1. Cells are short and spindle shaped
                                          1. Found in the walls of hollow internal organs

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Stomach, intestines, bladder, uterus, blood vessels 
                                          2. One central nucleus per cell
                                            1. Involuntary control

                                              Annotations:

                                              • Moves food through digestive tract, constricts blood vessels, and empties the bladder 
                                          3. Cardiac
                                            1. One nucleus per cell
                                              1. Involuntary control

                                                Annotations:

                                                • Pumps blood through the heart and into the blood vessels
                                                1. Cells are striated, branched, joined end-to-end and interconnected
                                                  1. Specialized intercellular junction -> intercalated disc

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Connection b/w cardiac muscle cells 
                                                  2. Function w/o nervous stim.
                                          4. Epithelial
                                            1. Covers body surface, internal organs, and glands
                                              1. Classified according to cell shape and the number of cell layers
                                                1. Simple Squamous

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • -One layer of flat cells -Diffusion, filtration, secretion  -alveoli of lungs, ithe kidney, the lining of the heart, blood vessels, and ventral cavities 
                                                  1. Simple Cuboidal

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • -One layer of cuboidal cells -Secretion and absorption -Small glands, kidney tubules, and ovary surface
                                                    1. Simple Columnar

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • -one layer of columnar cells -Non ciliated: absorption of digested food, secretion of mucus  -digestive track -Ciliated: secretion, moving mucus  -small bronchi, uterus
                                                      1. Pseudostraified Columnar

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • -One layer of cells, all on basal membrane  -Secretion and propulsion of mucus -Nonciliated: male urethra and ducts of large glands -Ciliated: found on trachea, primary bronchi, and upper respiratory 
                                                        1. Stratified Squamous

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • E-has several layers, with a surface of flat cells -protection..may contain keratin that repels bacteria  Keratinized: epidermis of skin Non-keratinized: lines wet surfaces, such as mouth, esophagus, tongue 
                                                          1. Stratified Cuboidal

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • -Several layers, but the surface is cuboidal  -Protection  -largest ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands, salivary glands
                                                            1. Stratified Columnar

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • -Several layers, with columnar surface -Protection and secretion -Very rare: lines parts of the urethra, large ducts of glands, conjunctiva of eye
                                                              1. Transitional

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • -shape at surface us transitory..will look like stratified squamous when stretched, stratified cuboidal when not.  -distension of urinary organ  -on surface of stretchy organs, like the bladder and uterus. 
                                                                1. Glandular
                                                              2. Protection, secretion, absorption, excretion
                                                                1. Lacks blood vessels, cells readily divide, though are tightly packed
                                                                  1. Basement membrane
                                                                    1. Anchors epithelium to connective tissue
                                                                      1. Cancer cells dissolve the membrane or produce fewer adhesion proteins
                                                                  2. Connective
                                                                    1. Widely distributed throughout the body
                                                                      1. Cell types
                                                                        1. Fibroblasts

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • Produce collagens and elastic fibers 
                                                                          1. Macrophages

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • Are phagocytes (eat cells)
                                                                            1. Mast cells

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • Release heparin and histamine 
                                                                            2. Tissue fibers
                                                                              1. Collagen

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • Great tensile strength
                                                                                1. Elastic

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • Composed of elastin, are stretchy 
                                                                                  1. Reticular

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • Fine collagen fibers 
                                                                                2. Bind, support, protect, store fat, produce blood cells, protect against infection, and repair damaged tissue
                                                                                  1. Categories of Tissue
                                                                                    1. Loose
                                                                                      1. Areolar

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • Description: membranes between organs that bind them together  Location: Beneath skin and surrounds organs
                                                                                        1. Adipose

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          • Function: stores fat, cushions, insulates Location: beneath skin, in certain abdominal membranes, and around kidneys, heart, and various joints
                                                                                          1. Reticular

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • Description: thin branched reticular fibers Function: supports the walls of the liver and spleen
                                                                                          2. Dense
                                                                                            1. Regular

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • Description: strong collagen fibers that bind structures as parts of tendons and ligaments 
                                                                                              1. Irregular

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • Description: thicker, randomly distributed collagen fibers  Location: found on dermis 
                                                                                                1. Elastic

                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                  • Description: make up hollow internal organs  Location: line the lungs and blood vessels
                                                                                                2. Specialized
                                                                                                  1. Cartilage

                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                    • Description: provides support -fibers and a gel-like substance  -lacks direct blood supply, slow to heal Location: ends of various bones, in ear, in the larynx, in b/w spinal column, pelvic girdle, knees
                                                                                                    1. Bone

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      • -Matrix consists of mineral salts and collagen -Compact and spongy bones -Heals rapidly 
                                                                                                      1. Blood

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • Description: composed of cells suspended in fluid Location: produced in tissue of hollow parts of certain bones 
                                                                                                  2. Have a good blood supply, cells are farther apart, extra cellular mix in b/w
                                                                                                    1. Consists of fibers and a ground substance (gel-like)
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