Photosynthesis

kimclarkson22
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A Levels Biology Mind Map on Photosynthesis, created by kimclarkson22 on 03/10/2014.

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kimclarkson22
Created by kimclarkson22 over 5 years ago
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Photosynthesis
1 Light-Dependent stage
1.1 Water is a source of:
1.1.1 Hydrogen ions, which are used in CHEMIOSMOSIS to product ATP. These protons are then accepted by NAD to form reduced NAD
1.1.2 Electrons to replace those lost by the oxidised chlorophyll
1.2 Non-cyclic photophosphorylation
1.2.1 Light strikes PS2, exciting a pair of electrons that leave the chlorophyll molecule form the primary pigment reaction centre
1.2.1.1 Electrons pass along a chain of electron carriers and the energy is released to synthesis ATP
1.2.1.1.1 Light has also struck PS1 and a pair of electrons is lost
1.2.1.1.1.1 Electrons along with protons, join NAD which becomes reduced NAD
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Electrons from the oxidised PS2 replace the electrons lost from PS1
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Electrons from photolysed water replace those lost by the oxidised chlorophyll in PS2
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Protons from water take part in chemiosmosis to make ATP and are then captured by NAD, in the stroma.
2 Light-independent stage
2.1 Products if Calvin cycle
2.1.1 Some GP can make amino acids and fatty acids
2.1.2 TP molecules can combine to form hexose sugars (e.g. Glucose)
2.1.3 Glucose can be used to form fructose
2.1.4 TP can be converted to glycerol and can combine with fatty acids to make lipids
2.1.5 Hexose sugars can be polymerised into other carbohydrates such as cellulose and starch.
3 Limiting Factors
3.1 Carbon dioxide concentration
3.1.1
3.2 Temperature
3.3 Light intensity
4 Chloroplasts
4.1 Structure
4.1.1 Disc shaped and between 2-10 um long
4.1.2 Surrounded by a double membrane - an envelope
4.1.3 Intermembrane space
4.1.4 Outer membrane is permeable to many small ions
4.1.5 Innner membrane
4.1.5.1 Has embedded transport proteins
4.1.5.2 Folded into lamellae, which are stacked to form a granum
4.1.6 Stroma is a fluid-filled matrix. Reactions of the light-independent stage occur here where the necessary enzymes are located.
4.1.7 Grana are stacks of flattened membrane sacs, called thylakoids. These are the sites of light absorption and ATP synthesis during the light-dependant stage.
4.2 Adaptations
4.2.1 Inner membrane can control entry and exit of substances between cytoplasm and the stroma
4.2.2 Many grana provide a large surface area for the photosynthetic pigments, electron carriers and ATP synthase enzymes, all involved in LI reaction
4.2.3 Photosynthetic pigments are arranged into photosystems
5 Keywords
5.1 AUTOTROPH - are organisms that use light energy or chemical energy and inorganic molecules (CO2 & Water) to synthesise complex organic molecules
5.2 HETEROTROPHS - are organisms that ingest and digest complex organic molecules, releasing the chemical potential energy stored in them.

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