Medications:

Agnes Davidaviciute
Mind Map by Agnes Davidaviciute, updated more than 1 year ago
Agnes Davidaviciute
Created by Agnes Davidaviciute about 5 years ago
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Description

Various medications, their uses, contraindications, side effects and etc.

Resource summary

Medications:
  1. Furosemide (Frusemide)
    1. For management of congestive (acute and chronic) heart failure, non-cardiogenic oedema, hypercalcuric nephropathy, acute renail failure, hyperkalaemia, hypertension.
      1. Not effective in monotherapy for heart failure: use in conjuction with other medication (ACE inhibs + pimobendan) for better effects.
        1. Use with caution for patients with: severe electrolyte depletion, hepatic failure and diabetes mellitus.
          1. Other names: Dimazon, Frusecare, Frusedale, Frusol.
            1. Heart Medication
              1. Diuretic, aids expelling excess fluid.
                1. DOSES: injectable: 50mg/ml, tablets: 20mg, 40mg and 1g, oral solution: 40mg/5ml.
                  1. AVAILABLE AS: tablet, injection, oral solution
                    1. CONTRAINDICATIONS: dehydration and anuria. NOT TO USE IN DEHYDRATED OR HYPERURICAEMIC BIRDS.
                      1. SIDE EFFECTS: hypokalaemia, hypochloraemia, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnasaemia, hyponatraemia, dehydration, polyuria/polydipsia, prerenal azotaemia. Cardiac output reduction (patients with SEVERE PULMONARY DISEASE), low-output heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, pericardial/myocardial disorders, cardiac tamponade, severe hypertension.
                        1. OTHER SIDE EFFECTS: ototoxicity (esp. cats), GI upsets, leucopenia, anaemia, weakness and restlessness.
                        2. TREATMENT FOR: dogs, cats, small mammals, birds and reptiles. dosage and routes of admin. differ depending on species.
                      2. Metoclopramide (Emeprid)
                        1. Maropitant
                          1. Oclacitinib maleate
                            1. Metronidazole
                          2. Pimobendan
                            1. Methimazole
                              1. Trilostane
                            2. Prednisolone and dexamethasone
                          3. H2 Histamine Receptor Antagonists
                            1. Cimetidine: licensed for vet use
                              1. Other names: Zitac, Dyspamet, Tagamet.
                                1. Available as: injection, tablets, oral syrup.
                                  1. DOSES: injection: 100mg/ml in 2ml ampoules, tablets: 100mg, 200mg, 400mg and 800mg, oral syrup: 40mg/ml.
                                    1. For: dogs, cats and small mammals.
                                    2. Blocks histamine induced gastric acid secretion.
                                      1. Rapid absorption: high bioavailability
                                        1. USE: management of idiopathic/uraemic/drug-related erosive gastritis, gastric + duodenal ulcers, oesophagitis, hypersecretory conds. due to gastric mast cell neoplasia or short bowel syndrome.
                                          1. Recommended treatment time: 28 days.
                                    3. Ranitidine: not licensed for vet use
                                      1. Other names: Zantac
                                        1. Available as: injection, tablets, oral syrup.
                                          1. DOSES: injection: 25mg/ml, tablets: 75mg, 150mg and 300mg, oral syrup: 15mg/ml.
                                            1. FOR: dogs, cats and small mammals.
                                          2. USE: management of idiopathic/uraemic/drug-related erosive gastritis, gastric + duodenal ulcers, oesophagitis, hypersecretory conds. due to gastric mast cell neoplasia or short bowel syndrome.
                                            1. SIDE EFFECTS: rarely reported but cardiac arrhythmias and hypotension (esp. if admin. fast IV)
                                          3. More potent than Cimetidine but lower bioavailability (50%)
                                            1. Some prokinetic effect: useful when gastric mobility impraire by gastritis/ulceration and in feline idiopathic megacolon.
                                          4. Famotidine: not licensed for vet use
                                            1. Other names: Pepcid.
                                              1. Available as: tablets.
                                                1. DOSES: 20mg and 40mg.
                                                  1. FOR: dogs, cats and small mammals.
                                                2. Can be more potent than cimetidine but poorer oral bioavailability (37%)
                                                  1. USES: management of idiopathic/uraemic/drug-related erosive gastritis, gastric + duodenal ulcers, oesophagitis, hypersecretory conds. due to gastric mast cell neoplasia or short bowel syndrome.
                                              2. Amoxicillin/Clavulanate
                                                1. Other names: Clavaseptin, Synulox, Clavoral, Clavucil, Clavudale, Nisamox, Augmentin.
                                                  1. SIDE EFFECTS: nausea, D+ and skin rashes most common.
                                                  2. Available as: injection suspension, tablets, oral drops.
                                                    1. DOSES: injection: 175mg/ml suspension (140mg amoxicillin and 35mg clavulanate), for reconstitution (Augmentin): 600mg powder (500mg amoxicillin, 100mg clavulanate), 1.2g powder (1g amoxicillin, 200mg clavulanate), tablets: 50mg, 250mg and 500mg (amox. to cla. ratio 4:1), drops: when mixed with water make 40mg amoxycillin and 10mg clavulanate acid per ml.
                                                      1. ACTION: Amoxy. binds to penicilin-binding proteins used in bacterial cell wall synthesis, reducing cell wall strength and rigidity, affects cell division + growth + septum formation. Clavu. increases antimicrobial spectrum to those that produce beta-lactomase (e.g. Staphylococcus).
                                                        1. USE: against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic micro-organisms, many obligate anaerobes. Difficult gram-negative (pseudomonas aeruginosa and klebsiella) usually resistant. Dosing and intervals depend on organism, site and severity of infection.
                                                          1. SAFETY AND HANDLING: tablets in moisture proof foil, do not remove until administration. I.V. solutions and suspensions need refrigerating, disposal of made up substances when turn dark or after 10 days of reconstitution. Small discolouration of I.V. solutions is acceptable.
                                                        2. DO NOT USE: oral in critically ill patients as GI absorption can be unreliable = better to use I.V. formulations. Not to use if hypersensitivity to other beta-lactam family displayed. Not to be used in rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, hamsters or gerbils.
                                                          1. FOR: dogs and cats, ferrets, mice, rats, and birds.
                                                    2. NSAID's
                                                      1. Meloxicam
                                                        1. Other names: Metacam, Loxicam, Actiam, Adocam, Flexicam, Melovem, Meloxidyl, Meloxivet, Rheumocam.
                                                          1. AVAILABLE AS: tablets, injection and oral.
                                                            1. DOSES: injection: 2mg/ml for cats, 5mg/ml for dogs, oral suspension: 0.5mg/ml for cats, 1.5mg/ml for dogs, and tablets: 1.0mg and 2.5mg for dogs.
                                                              1. SAFETY AND HANDLING: after first opening oral suspension, must be used within 6 months. Shake oral suspension bottle well before use, Shelf life of broached injectables is 28 days.
                                                                1. DO NOT USE: in hypovolaemic, hypotensive, dehydrated patients or with blood clotting disorders or GI disease. CARE when given to renal disease patients (formulations need careful evaluation), not advised for periopreative period. Not for pregnant or animals younger than 6 weeks.
                                                            2. Preferentially prevents COX-2 enzymes from functioning thus reducing production of prostaglandins, which reduces inflammation,
                                                              1. USE: alleviate pain and inflammation in acute/chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Reduces post-op pain and inflammation following soft tissue/orthopaedic surgeries.
                                                            3. SIDE EFFECTS: GI irritation may be seen in all animals,
                                                            4. Carprofen
                                                              1. OTHER NAMES: Carprieve, Activyl, Bonocarp, Carpodyl, Carpogesic, Dolagis, Norocarp, Norodyl, Rimadyl, Rimifin.
                                                                1. AVAILABLE AS: injection: 50mg/ml, oral: 20mg, 50mg and 100mg (plain or palatable).
                                                                  1. FOR: injectable: cats 4mg/ml (only as single dose peri-op or at ana induction), dogs 4mg/ml (single dose peri-op or at ana induction, should last 24h), rabbits 2-4mg/ml, rodents 2-5mg/ml total daily dose, other 4mg/ml, birds 1-5mg/kg, reptiles 4mg/kg once then 2mg/kg. Oral: dogs 4mg/kg/day can be reduced to 2mg/kg/day, ferrets 1mg/kg, rabbits 1.5mg/kg, rodents 2-5mg/kg, birds 1-5mg/kg, reptiles same as injection.
                                                                2. ACTION: inhibits COX-2 enzyme which limits production of prostaglandins involved in inflammation.
                                                                  1. DRUG INTERACTION: not to be used with other NSAID's (within 24h of each other, or with glucocorticoids as become more ulcerogenic when used together. Nephrotoxicity increased when used with other nephotoxic agents (e.g. aminoclycosides).
                                                                  2. USE: control post-op pain and inflammation followed from surgery and reduces chronic inflammation (e.g. degen. joint disease, osteoarthritis).
                                                                    1. SIDE EFFECTS: GI irritation may be seen in all animals.
                                                                      1. DO NOT GIVE TO: dehydrated, hypovolaemic, hypotensive, GI disorder suffering or patients with blood clotting disorders. NOT for pregnant animals or younger than 6 weeks. Renal failure patients should be prescribed this with caution.
                                                                  3. Fibrocoxib
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