Biology B25-26

Molly Munyard
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Science (Biology) Mind Map on Biology B25-26, created by Molly Munyard on 03/14/2014.

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Molly Munyard
Created by Molly Munyard over 5 years ago
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Biology B25-26
1 Cloning
1.1 Tissue culture
1.1.1 Makes new plants by asexual reproduction
1.1.2 Small groups of cells
1.1.2.1 Put into a special liquid/jelly
1.1.2.1.1 must be clean
1.1.2.1.1.1 No bacteria/moulds
1.1.2.1.2 Must have chemicals to promote the development of the cells
1.2 Embryo transplants
1.2.1 used to produce cattle with desirable characteristics
1.2.2 Eggs taken from prize females and fertilised with one of a selected Bull's sperm
1.2.2.1 Each embryo develops into an 8-cell embryo (in a dish)
1.2.2.1.1 Each 8-cell embryo is split into 4 2-cell embryos
1.2.2.1.1.1 They develop into 8-cells
1.2.2.1.1.1.1 Each is put into the womb/uterus of a less-valuable cow
1.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 The surrogate mothers allow the embryos to develop inside them
1.2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 The calves are born and are genetically identical to each other
1.3 Adult cell cloning
1.3.1 an unfertilised egg is taken from a Scottish Blackface Ewe
1.3.1.1 Its nucleus is destroyed
1.3.1.1.1 A cell is taken from the mammary gland of a Finn Dorset Ewe
1.3.1.1.1.1 Its nucleus is implanted into the empty egg cell
1.3.1.1.1.1.1 An electric shock is given to the egg cell to make it divide
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 It develops into an embryo
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 It is implanted into a host mothers uterus
1.3.2
2 Genetic engineering
2.1 Changing an organism's genes
2.1.1 Selective breeding
2.1.2 Enzymes
2.2 Making Insulin
2.2.1 Can be easily grown in large amounts
2.2.2 Made by genetic engineering
2.2.3 An enzyme is used to cut the insulin gene out of the chromosome
2.2.3.1 plasmids are then removed from bacterial cells.
2.2.3.2 The bacteria's plasmid is then cut to allow the insulin gene to fit into the space
2.2.3.2.1 he insulin gene is inserted into the plasmid
2.2.3.2.1.1 the plasmid is returned to the bacterium
2.2.3.2.1.1.1 The reproduction of bacteria and the plasmid makes insulin
2.2.4
2.3 embryos
2.3.1 the human gene of protein is cut out of the human chromosome
2.3.1.1 several copies of the gene are obtained
2.3.1.1.1 they are put into fertilised eggs
2.3.1.1.1.1 The fertilised eggs develop in a glass dish
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 One cell is taken from each ball of cells to find the ones of the desired sex (if applicable)
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 They are implanted into a host mothers womb and are left to develop and be born
2.3.2 Advantages
2.3.2.1 Organism is not harmed
2.3.2.2 Organism is kept in good conditions
2.3.2.3 Organism is valuable and will therefore not be killed for food/meat
2.3.2.4 A lot of protein can be made to treat people who are ill