Ferric metals

Mónica Garrido
Mind Map by Mónica Garrido, updated more than 1 year ago
Mónica Garrido
Created by Mónica Garrido almost 4 years ago
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ferric metals
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Ferric metals
1 Contain Iron
1.1 5% of Earth's crust
1.2 pure iron
1.2.1 rarely used due to its low mechanical strengh
1.3 mixtures
1.3.1 Most used alloys of iron and carbon
1.4 Easy to find
2 Iron and steel industry
2.1 Obtaining the mineral
2.1.1 Iron is not found pure but forming part of some minerals
2.1.2 Extracting mineral from crust: mining
2.2 Separating ore ("mena") from gangue ("ganga")
2.2.1 Crunching the mineral and submerging it in water, ore is denser (sinks), gangue stays at the top
2.2.1.1 Decantation
2.2.1.2 Ore stills contains a 30% of impurities
2.3 Blast furnace
2.3.1 Introduce ore, coking coal and flux
2.3.2 Obtain pig iron and slag
2.3.3 burned at 1800ºC
2.3.4 Produces gases
2.4 Obtaining steel
2.4.1 Refining pig iron by eliminating part of the carbon
2.4.2 Oxygen converter
2.4.2.1 pig iron
2.4.2.2 Scrap steel
2.4.2.3 Oxygen
2.4.3 75% of pig iron is used for obtaining steel
3 According to carbon %
3.1 Soft Iron
3.1.1 ("Hierro dulce")
3.1.2 0%-0.1% Carbon
3.1.3 Light gray, ductile, malleable, rust easily, difficult and expensive to obtain
3.1.4 few applications ("pure iron")
3.1.4.1 electromagnets cores
3.2 Steel
3.2.1 0.1%-1.76% Carbon
3.2.1.1 The higher the C %, the grater its hardness, but more fragile
3.2.2 "Acero"
3.2.3 Most widely used
3.2.4 Very resistant, easy to weld, little resistant to corrosion, moderated price
3.2.5 Structures, vehicles, nails, screws, tools...
3.3 Foundry
3.3.1 more than 1.76% Carbon
3.3.2 Cast/ Cast iron
3.3.2.1 "Hierro fundido"
3.3.3 Neither ductile nor malleable, cannot be forged or welded, less resistant, more brittle, cheaper than steel
3.3.4 Machine tool benches, engine blocks, urban furniture
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