The NAACP - Key cases (Brown vs Board of Education) and strategy

Abbie Fisher
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A Levels AS Level (History) Mind Map on The NAACP - Key cases (Brown vs Board of Education) and strategy, created by Abbie Fisher on 03/19/2014.

Abbie Fisher
Created by Abbie Fisher over 5 years ago
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The NAACP - Key cases (Brown vs Board of Education) and strategy
1 Who were they?
1.1 Founded in 1909
1.1.1 Multi - racial group of civil rights campaigners
1.1.2 Headed by W.E.B. Dubois
1.2 Created to fight for the rights of black people
1.2.1 Oppose discrimination and racial hatred
1.3 Middle to upper class blacks
1.4 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
2 Between 1939 - 1942 membership grew from 50,000 to 450,000
3 Best known for campaigning court cases which challenged legal basis of segregation
3.1 Also involved with non-violent direct action and other initiatives to empower African Americans.
3.1.1 E.g. Louisiana Progressive Voters League aimed to encourage black voting registration - sub section of NAACP
3.2 Why did they go to court?
3.2.1 Believed they could use the legal system to end segregation American Constitution attempts to protect the rights of individuals thorough the separation of powers
3.2.2 Challenge 'Jim Crow' laws Appeals to Fourteenth Amendment Everyone born in the USA has full citizenship rights Appeals to Fifteenth Amendment All citizens have the right to vote
3.3 Provided funds and experienced lawyers - Thurgood Marshall
3.3.1 Support the court cases of individual black men and women who were prepared to take the authorities to court
3.4 Examples
3.4.1 Smith vs. Allwright 1944 - 1950 Lonnie E. Smith challenged these laws and the case was taken to the Supreme Court Black people could only vote in Congressional elections, not primary elections White primaries were part of politics in many southern states Court case ruled that Texan white primary primary was illegal due to the 15th Amendment This ruling applied to the whole of America - hence white primaries were outlawed everywhere
3.4.2 Morgan vs. Virginia 1946 Challenged segregation on interstate buses 1944 - Irene Morgan was fined $100 for refusing to give up her seat for a white man Morgan argued that transport segregation violated her constitutional rights Case was taken to Supreme Court with Thurgood Marshall's backing In 1946, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on interstate buses was illegal
4 Non-violent resistance 1945 - 55
4.1 Organised a series of protests in Louisiana (in the South)
4.1.1 1947 - Picketed New Orleans' four biggest department stores for refusing to allow black customers to try on hats.
4.1.2 1951 - tried same tactic in Alexandra in protest of the local black school closing so black children could work in the cotton fields during the cotton harvest.
4.1.3 1953 - organised a boycott of a newly built school in Lafayette, protesting that its facilities were obviously worse than those at the local white school.

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