Coasts Case Studies

Ellen Laidlaw
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Geography Mind Map on Coasts Case Studies, created by Ellen Laidlaw on 03/19/2014.

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Ellen Laidlaw
Created by Ellen Laidlaw over 5 years ago
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Coasts Case Studies
1 Sea Level Rise - East Anglia
1.1 Settlements like Kings Lynn and Happisburgh will flood destroying homes & businesses
1.2 Norfolk Broads, a popular tourist destination bringing in £5 million a year will flood.
1.3 The Fens - quality agricultural land will be flooded.
1.4 Low-lying salt marshes in Essex, habitat to many wildlife will be lost due to floods.
1.5 Thames Barrier protects buildings in London worth over £80 billion - will need improving, expensive.
1.6 Storm Surge killing 300 people in the 1950's, increased fear it might happen again.
2 Cliff Collapse - Barton on Sea
2.1 Why it's Collapsing?
2.1.1 Soft rock on top of hard rock, slumping.
2.1.2 A stream flows in to the rock - increasing weight.
2.1.3 Buildings along the coast increase weight
2.1.4 Coastal Configuration - faces South-westerly winds (Strong Fetch)
2.1.5 The rock is weak sands and clay - easily eroded.
2.2 Effects of Collapse
2.2.1 Homes of 20 000 residents will begin to fall in 20yrs.
2.2.2 Golf Course will be lost in around 10 - 20 yrs.
2.2.3 Roads like Grave Road will be lost to the sea, disrupting access to and from the town.
2.2.4 Valuable agricultural land will be lost & habitats for wildlife.
2.2.5 Beach will be completely eroded - lack of tourism.
3 Coastal Management - Minehead
3.1 Problems
3.1.1 1990's flooding
3.1.2 Beach erosion - stopping tourism.
3.2 Management
3.2.1 0.6 metres curved sea-wall to reflect wave power.
3.2.2 Rock Groynes to prevent longshore drift.
3.2.3 Rock Armour to reduce impact of wave before sea-wall.
3.2.4 Beach Replenishment, built up beach by 2 metres.
3.3 Results
3.3.1 Saved an estimated £8.7 million. Cost was £12.3 million but costs to infrastructure from flooding that would occur without the defences would've been around £20 million.
3.3.2 Effectively slows erosion of beach and reduces flooding.
3.3.3 Protects tourist site of Butlins.
4 Coastal Habitat - Keyhaven Marshes
4.1 Habitats & Species
4.1.1 Cord Grass - long rooted, lives in salt water.
4.1.2 Sea Lavender - flowering plant that lives in salt water.
4.1.3 Wold Spider - lives underwater, feeds in low tide.
4.1.4 Ringed Plover - Feeds in the salt marshes
4.1.5 Oyster Catcher - lives and feeds in salt marshes.
4.2 Management for Protection
4.2.1 Rock armour and beach replenishment on the spit to reduce erosion and reduce impact of waves on marshes. £5 million spent in total.
4.2.2 Became an SSSI to reduce human impact and protect marshes biodiversity.
4.3 Issues
4.3.1 Salt Marsh Retreat. This is due to Hurst Castle Spit becoming starved of sand (Groyne construction downstream) This spit shelters the marshes. Marshes losing 6 metres every year as a result of being trapped between waves and a sea wall.
4.3.2 Storm surges washing away 60 - 80 metres of marsh.
4.3.3 Tourism eroding it further - trampling/boating.
4.4 Characteristics
4.4.1 Tidal mudflats, Low Marsh, High Marsh and Marsh Upland
4.4.2 Change and become more plants and animals as you progress away from marshes