Explain why King Richard I went on the
1.1 The shock of defeat at the battle of Hattin and the subsequent loss of Jerusalem provide the context for the
calling of the Third Crusade and the departure on crusade of King Richard of England.
2.1 The king was spurred on by the loss
of Jerusalem in Oct. 1187.
2.1.1 Richard went to liberate the Holy city. Jerusalem was a site sanctified by Christ, the focal point of the
Christian faith and of huge importance to everyone in the West. As the site of both the crucifixion and the
burial place of Jesus the Holy Sepulchre was the ultimate goal for pilgrims.
3 personal piety
3.1 Like all crusaders Richard would gain the spiritual privilege
of the indulgence, an assurance of direct entry into heaven.
The journey to Jerusalem was such a difficult and dramatic
penance that it gave remission of the consequences of all
sins and the heavenly reward.
4 Family business
4.1 He went because of his position as head of the senior branch of the house of Anjou, to support of the junior
branch of the house of Anjou.
4.1.1 In 1189 this was represented by
Sibylla Queen of Jerusalem.
126.96.36.199 Sibylla's husband was Guy of Lusignan.
Richard was also the feudal lord of the Lusignan
188.8.131.52.1 It was to defend the rights of Sibylla and her
husband that Richard embarked on his crusade.
184.108.40.206.1.1 As Gillingham notes ‘At Richard's court the kingdom of Jerusalem was looked upon as a family inheritance
and it was along these lines that Richard negotiated with Saladin. The Third Crusade, in other words, was a
piece of family business as well as an episode in a holy war against the infidel’.
5 Knightly ethos
5.1 As a Christian warrior Richard wish to show his chivalry and martial
valour, his objective was the recovery of the
patrimony of Christ, his lord's lands, as well as personal glory
6 King Richard went because it was the duty of a Christian monarch
6.1 But he was also motivated by rivalry with
King Philip II of France