1.1 On 20th Oct 1187, within nine days of
becoming Pope, Gregory VIII issued the Papal
bull, audita tremendi calling the Third Crusade.
1.1.1 This speed, and the death of Gregory’s elderly predecessor Pope Urban III, reflected the impact of the news
from the Holy land
184.108.40.206 The destruction of the field army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Hattin
on 4th July 1187 left the kingdom defenceless, and with the exception of
Tyre Saladin occupied the kingdom. He entered Jerusalem on 2nd
2 The loss of Jerusalem
2.1 Once again, in common with the First Crusade the liberation of
Jerusalem was to play a central role in stimulating a crusade.
2.1.1 The Holy city was the ultimate goal for pilgrimage,
central to Christianity as the site of Christ’s crucifixion
220.127.116.11 The Holy Sepulchre was a potent image which stirred the hearts and
minds of all crusaders.
3.1 The loss of Jerusalem came as a profound shock to western
Christendom, both because of the extent of the disaster and its
3.1.1 The need to liberate the Holy city was paramount, as was the need
to avenge the loss of Christ’s patrimony.
18.104.22.168 The Holy city of Jerusalem lay at the heart of the crusade, its loss had a
profound impact on western Christendom
22.214.171.124.1 Pope Gregory’s bull stressed Muslim atrocities such
as the killing of the Templars and Hospitallers, the
aftermath of Saladin’s victory at Hattin and the usual
promises of crusading as an act of penance and
remission of sins .
4 Long-term issues
4.1 The crusader states faced a long-term crisis in both geographical isolation and manpower
4.1.1 embassies requesting help had been sent by the
Kingdom of Jerusalem, e.g. Patriarch Heraclius in 1184-5,
reflecting its grave position even before the
catastrophic defeat at Hattin,
126.96.36.199 Its leadership was deeply divided and the succession crisis
following the deaths of Baldwin IV and V, needed to be
resolved, including the position of King Guy