Explain why the Third crusade took place

Alan Thomson
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A level The Crusades Mind Map on Explain why the Third crusade took place, created by Alan Thomson on 03/20/2014.

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Alan Thomson
Created by Alan Thomson over 5 years ago
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Explain why the Third crusade took place
1 Introduction
1.1 On 20th Oct 1187, within nine days of becoming Pope, Gregory VIII issued the Papal bull, audita tremendi calling the Third Crusade.
1.1.1 This speed, and the death of Gregory’s elderly predecessor Pope Urban III, reflected the impact of the news from the Holy land
1.1.1.1 The destruction of the field army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Hattin on 4th July 1187 left the kingdom defenceless, and with the exception of Tyre Saladin occupied the kingdom. He entered Jerusalem on 2nd October
2 The loss of Jerusalem
2.1 Once again, in common with the First Crusade the liberation of Jerusalem was to play a central role in stimulating a crusade.
2.1.1 The Holy city was the ultimate goal for pilgrimage, central to Christianity as the site of Christ’s crucifixion and resurrection.
2.1.1.1 The Holy Sepulchre was a potent image which stirred the hearts and minds of all crusaders.
3 Shock
3.1 The loss of Jerusalem came as a profound shock to western Christendom, both because of the extent of the disaster and its unexpectedness.
3.1.1 The need to liberate the Holy city was paramount, as was the need to avenge the loss of Christ’s patrimony.
3.1.1.1 The Holy city of Jerusalem lay at the heart of the crusade, its loss had a profound impact on western Christendom
3.1.1.1.1 Pope Gregory’s bull stressed Muslim atrocities such as the killing of the Templars and Hospitallers, the aftermath of Saladin’s victory at Hattin and the usual promises of crusading as an act of penance and remission of sins .
4 Long-term issues
4.1 The crusader states faced a long-term crisis in both geographical isolation and manpower
4.1.1 embassies requesting help had been sent by the Kingdom of Jerusalem, e.g. Patriarch Heraclius in 1184-5, reflecting its grave position even before the catastrophic defeat at Hattin,
4.1.1.1 Its leadership was deeply divided and the succession crisis following the deaths of Baldwin IV and V, needed to be resolved, including the position of King Guy

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