The rise of Stalin and Stalinism

Sebastiaan Maliepaard
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Mind Map on The rise of Stalin and Stalinism, created by Sebastiaan Maliepaard on 03/23/2014.

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Sebastiaan Maliepaard
Created by Sebastiaan Maliepaard over 5 years ago
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The rise of Stalin and Stalinism

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  • The nature of Single party states  * aka. Crisis states  * Arise during periods of conflict * they are the result of war * economic collapse * religious/class conflict  =Periods of  Fear Because there is fear ppl are attracted to ideologies that promise hope and order.  These Ideologies are usually extreme and they require that people give up some of their political or all political power to the party  = No opposition =Repressive regime  = Propoganda 
1 Bolshevik revolution
1.1 1917 revolutions
1.1.1 March 15
1.1.1.1 Tsar Nicholas 2nd abdicates
1.1.1.1.1 New provisional gvt is formed led by Lvov followed by Kerensky
1.1.1.1.1.1 kerensky led Gvt falls (leads to Oct/Nov revolution)
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1) Continuation of unpopular war (ww1) => collapse of morale. | Gvt. lost support of the army
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Did not keep electoral promises: They delayed the elections; did not redistribute the land => leads to confusion and anarchy
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Econ. chaos, inflation, lack of production = ppl suffering. Lenin claims to end war with Germ. and redistribute and land and more food at cheaper prices.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Kornilov affair: General Kornilov attempts to fight the Bolshevik whom he viewed as traitors. He moved to Petrograd (Trostsky was there) but the soldiers mutinied => Bolsheviks take over Petrograd
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Oct. 20 1917 the Petrograd Soviets (urged by lenin) take the decision to seize power. Night of November 6-7 Bolshevik re guards arrest provisional gvt. Kerensky escapes. Lenin sets up new fvt. with himself in charge
2 Stalin's Russia
2.1 The NEP had brought some economic progress, however it was still backwards when compared to the rest of Europe
2.1.1 Stalin's Domestic policies
2.1.1.1 Reasons
2.1.1.1.1 Fear of invasion
2.1.1.1.1.1 USSR was scared the west was conspiring against them and wanted to be prepared
2.1.1.1.2 Political reasons
2.1.1.1.2.1 Industrialization was seen as necessary for the survival of the "revolution" (Marx)
2.1.1.1.2.1.1 Industrialization would create a larger proletariat
2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Nepmen were private business owners who had survived the NEP. These were ennemies of the state.These had to be removed.
2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1
2.1.1.1.3 Economical reasons
2.1.1.1.3.1 Industry and agricultre were backward and inefficient => constant food shortages => Social and political problems
2.1.1.1.3.1.1 WW1 and revolution had damaged industrial infrastructure
2.1.1.1.3.1.1.1 Since the 1917 trade had been dramatically reduced with the rest of the world: Russia had to become self sufficient
2.1.1.2 Solutions
2.1.1.2.1 NEP was a temporary measure, Stalin argued it must be abandoned so that Ariculture and industry would be taken over by the government. Two ideas: 5 year plans + collectivization
2.1.1.2.1.1 Industrialization: To be handled by the Gosplan (state planning authority)
2.1.1.2.1.1.1 5 year plans
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 1928-1932
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 This 5 year plan focused on the heavy industries. ie. steel, coal etc.
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2 1933- 1937
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1 This 5 year plan focussed on the consumer goods-
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1 however shortly after the start, it was reversed to heavy industries because of the fear of Hitler
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3 Consequences
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3.1 six fold increase in coal production four fold increase in steel production
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3.1.1 Corruption in the factories to meet targets
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3.1.1.1 Neglect of consumer industries and decrease of textile producement
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3.1.1.1.1 decline in working conditons and pay
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Use of slavery to overcome labor shortages
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Huge Growth in number of industrial workers
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Captiatlist classes removed: Nepmen ("capitalist" entrepeneurs) and Bourgeois experts (the intelects that kept the factories running)
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Increased gvt role in the central econ. planning
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Strenghtened Stalin's possition as those who opposed the 5year plan were removed
2.1.1.2.1.2 Agriculture
2.1.1.2.1.2.1 Collectivation (launched 1929)
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1 Small farms should be merged to create large collective farms jointly owned by the peasants what was called "kolkhoz".
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1 Reasons 1) Farms were inefficient and big farms could share tractors to become more efficien
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1 Reason 2) Wanted to eliminate the Kulag (wealthy peasants) because they were standing in the way of growth
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Consequence:
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 1) Massive opposition from the farmers. Those who did not want to partcipate were now Kulags and enimies of the state
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 2) Production actualy dropped. farmers rather burn their farms and kill their cattle than to give it to the state. Took 20 years to recover
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Spread of party Control to the countryside
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Widespread famine (1933) - Millions died (4million at least)
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Huge number of executions, prison system, gulaks, show trials
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Collectivization did occur. 1937 90% was collectivized
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Gvt too centralized shouting out orders without knowing local conditions
2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Grain was used for export in order to obtain foreign currency to pay for industrial machienry
2.1.1.3 The Purges
2.1.1.3.1 Political reasons
2.1.1.3.1.1 Murder of Kirov was a pretext to start purging stalin's oppostion
2.1.1.3.1.1.1 Nationalist movements: created a threat to him and communism and the Union
2.1.1.3.1.1.1.1 Many satellites: 47% living in the USSR were not ethically Russian. Many were not communist either and didnt want to be part of Russia
2.1.1.3.1.1.1.2 He argued that they were not joining Russia, but becoming members of this glorious goal of Internationalism. He allowed them to keep their own language and culture. He was not asking them to become Russians.
2.1.1.3.1.2 Propaganda machine: To convince the people. Authors, writers, music was made to convince people that communism was bringing a better life and that he was the good father.
2.1.1.3.1.2.1 Schools were made to teach teh Marxist ideology. An attempt at weakening the orthodox church
2.1.1.3.2 1st Stage of the Purges: Get rid of General in the army, 1/3 of army officiers, 3/5 marshalls 7/8 army commanders, 37000 officers people in the leadership of the Soviet.
2.1.1.3.2.1 2nd Stage:Purges all and any people who he accused of being enemies of the state (Nepmen, Kulaks and Bourgeois experts and "spies"
2.1.1.3.2.1.1 Purges are actually the tool he uses to consolidate his power
3 Lenin dies in 1924 and leaves his testament. This document does not appoint anyone specifically as successor. This leads to a powers struggle
3.1 Stalin & Trotsky: Both members of the politburo.
3.1.1 Stalin
3.1.1.1 According to Lenin: Found him stubborn and rude, he should be removed from his position of leadership
3.1.1.1.1 Peasant Background => deep sense of class hatred
3.1.1.1.1.1 Effective Administrator (secretary general)
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Practical, shrewd, ruthless
3.1.1.1.1.1.2 Access to files
3.1.1.1.1.1.3 head of police reported to him
3.1.2 Trotsky
3.1.2.1 Accodring to Lenin: Inspired orator, intellectual and a man of action (organized the first red army)
3.1.2.1.1 Jewish and wealthy
3.1.2.1.1.1 Used to be Menshevik (assumed to be a moderate Bolshevik)
3.1.2.1.1.1.1 Formidable intelect
3.2 Stalin, unlike trotsky, showed up to Lenin's funeral and refrained from ciritisizing Lenin, which trostsky did. This positioned him more favorable to the people(gained more trust)
3.3 Stalin isolates Trotsky in Soviet policy= NEP (Bukharin and Lenin) vs. Industrialization (Trotsky)(domestic revolution vs internationalism) = Stalin choses NEP
3.3.1 Kamenez and Zinoviev split from Bukarin to join Trotsky
3.3.1.1 Stalin gets Trotsky, Kamenez and Zinoviev expelled from party
3.3.1.1.1 Stalin turns against the NEP [in favour of Kulak] (and thus Bukharin is expelled)
3.3.1.1.1.1 Stalin now has supreme power
3.4 The Lenin enrolment (1923-1925) was a process in which there was a drive to get more of the proletariat and workers into the Communist party, Stalin used Lenin Enrolment for his own personal gain by placing his supporters in places of political power

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