Biology 1

FaultyHammer
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FaultyHammer
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Biology Unit 1

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Biology 1
1 Adaptation of animals
1.1 Synapses and Reflexes
1.1.1 Synapses connect neurones
1.1.1.1 Chemicals diffuse across gap, carrying signal
1.1.2 Reflexes are automatic responses
1.1.2.1 EXAMPLE: Shock, body releases adrenaline.
1.1.3 REFLEX ARC
1.1.3.1 Stimulation of pain recepton
1.1.3.1.1 Impulses travel sensory neurone
1.1.3.1.1.1 Impulse passed along relay neurone
1.1.3.1.1.1.1 Impulse travels along motor neurone
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Muscle contracts to react.
1.2 Hormones
1.2.1 Ovaries produce oestogen
1.2.2 Chemical messengers that travel in the blood to activate target cells
1.2.3 Pituitary Gland makes FSH and LH
1.2.3.1 FSH causes eggs to be produced
1.2.3.2 LH causes egg to be released from ovary
1.2.3.3 Oestrogen causes LH to be made
1.2.4 IVF treatment
1.2.4.1 Eggs taken in lab
1.2.4.1.1 Fertilised with donor sperm, making embryo
1.2.4.1.1.1 this then implanted back into mother
1.2.5 Plant Hormones PAGE 24
1.2.5.1 Auxin is growth hormone
1.2.5.1.1 Grows near tips of shoots and roots
1.2.5.1.1.1 IN SHOOTS, EXTRA AUXIN CAUSES GROWTH
1.2.5.1.1.2 IN ROOTS, EXTRA AUXIN INHIBITS GROWTH
1.2.5.1.2 TOWARDS LIGHT
1.2.5.1.2.1 More auxin in the shade, shoot bends
1.2.5.1.3 AWAY FROM GRAVITY
1.2.5.1.3.1 More Auxin on lower side, shoot grows up
2 Immune system
2.1 White Blood Cells
2.1.1 Produce Antitoxins
2.1.2 Produce antibodies
2.1.2.1 Invading cells have antigens
2.1.2.1.1 When foreign antigen found, antibodies made
2.1.2.2 These are protiens
2.1.2.3 Made RAPIDLY
2.1.2.4 Specific to ONE antigen
2.1.3 Consume pathogens
2.2 Pathogens
2.2.1 Bacteria
2.2.1.1 Small living cells, reproduce rapidly
2.2.2 Virus
2.2.2.1 NOT Cells, much smaller
2.2.2.2 Invade cells and multiply
2.2.3 Make us ill
2.2.3.1 Make Toxins
2.2.3.2 Damage Cells
2.3 Vaccination
2.3.1 Dead/Inactive cells
2.3.2 Allows body to recognise antigen more quickly next time
2.3.2.1 Stops us from getting infected
2.3.3 Pros and Cons
2.3.3.1 Pros
2.3.3.1.1 Control/wipe out diseases
2.3.3.1.2 Epidemics prevented
2.3.3.2 Cons
2.3.3.2.1 Don't always work
2.3.3.2.2 Allergic reactions, but rare
3 Preparing a petri dish
3.1 Sterilise before use to kill bacteria
3.2 Swab bacteria onto agar jelly
3.3 Seal with tape and allow to incubate
4 KEY
4.1 IMPORTANT
4.2 LIST OF THINGS
4.3 TOPIC
4.4 TOPIC
4.5 TOPIC

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