Teaching ESL: Approaches & Methods

Anna Logan
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Anna Logan
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EESL 630: Approaches and Methods for teaching ESL

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Teaching ESL: Approaches & Methods
1 Approaches vs. Methods
1.1 Approaches
1.1.1 A theory or theoretical framework that guides a teacher's choice of methods, strategies, and techniques.
1.1.1.1 Methods
1.1.1.1.1 A group of strategies and techniques that a teacher implements in the classroom.
2 Grammatical Approach
2.1 This approach focuses on the rules and structure of the target language.
2.1.1 Teacher-centered
2.2 1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2.1 This method involves students translating passages from another language into the target language. The focus is on grammatical accuracy, not meaning.
2.3 2. Direct Method
2.3.1 This method includes the use of memorization of certain language structures and repetitive practice. The intent is to internalize grammatical patterns.
2.4 3. Audiolingual Method
2.4.1 This method involves students practicing patterned dialogue drills. The goal is to make the new language a habit.
2.5 Behaviorist Perspective
3 Communicative Approach
3.1 Cognitivist Perspective
3.2 This approach focuses on students communicating and constructing meaning within the learning environment created by the teacher.
3.2.1 Student-centered
3.3 1. Silent Way
3.3.1 The teacher is mostly silent in this method to provide opportunities for the students to communicate in the target language.
3.4 2. Natural Way
3.4.1 This method emphasizes comprehension before production of the target language.
3.5 3. Suggestopedia
3.5.1 This method strives to lower the affective filter by creating a low-stress learning environment.
3.6 4. Integrated-Content Based (ICB)
3.6.1 This method is based on thematic units that teach both linguistic and academic content at the same time.
3.7 5. Sheltered Instruction (SIOP)
3.7.1 This standards-based method involves the use of content standards as well as second language acquisition standards from TESOL or WIDA. Language and content instruction is scaffolded through the use of visuals and interactive learning experiences.
4 Cognitive Approach
4.1 Social Constructivist Perspective
4.2 The approach focuses on students developing understanding through meaningful interaction.
4.2.1 Student-centered
4.3 1. CALLA
4.3.1 This goal of this method is to prepare students to be successful in academic content areas. It targets major content areas, development of academic language, and instruction about learning strategies. There is a heavy emphasis on connecting learning to prior knowledge through experiential learning opportunities.
5 Sources
5.1 Herrera, S. G., & Murry, K. G. (2016). Mastering ESL/EFL methods: Differentiated instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
5.2 Chamot, A. U. (2009). The CALLA handbook (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson.
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