Trait Approach to Personality

becky.waine
Mind Map by becky.waine, updated more than 1 year ago
becky.waine
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Personality - NOT NEEDED Mind Map on Trait Approach to Personality, created by becky.waine on 05/02/2013.
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Trait Approach to Personality
1 focus on scientific measurement, in contrast with Freud and Rogers. trait theorists use traits for three scientific functions.....
1.1 DESCRIPTION - traits summarize a person's behaviour. overall descriptive scheme. taxonomy - classifying things being studied.
1.2 PREDICTION - predict behaviour based on traits. predictions based on important practical value
1.3 EXPLANATION - traits used to explain behaviour
2 people think traits are central to personality. traits refer to consistent patterns in the way individuals think, feel, behave. predisposed to trait
2.1 DeRaad (2005) traits refer to behaviours in a social context, e.g. the social person would be sociable in all contexts.
2.2 JOINT ASSUMPTIONS OF TRAIT THEORY - broad predispositions called traits. all theorists agree that generalised tendencies are personality building bloc
2.2.1 trait theorists believe that overt behaviour and underlying traits are linked in a direct way
2.2.1.1 traits can be organised in a hierarchy, e.g. extraversion is then split into lively, sociable, etc etc..
3 ALLPORT
3.1 traits are basic unit of P. traits actually exist and are based in the nervous system, traits defined by frequency, intensity and range of situations
3.1.1 three types of trait. CARDINAL - every act traceable to it's influence, rare. CENTRAL - cover a more limited range of situations. e.g. friendliness
3.1.1.1 AND SECONDARY DISPOSITIONS - traits least conspicuous, relevant to a few situation, e.g. habits
3.2 Allport uses idiographic research - uniqueness of the individual, which most personality theorists don't do (use nomothetic)
3.2.1 said the adult grows out of early motives, e.g. hard work no longer to impress adults but to be valued in itself.
3.2.1.1 EVALUATION - overall, allports contributions limited, anti-scientific, idiographic...
4 FACTOR ANALYSIS - statistical technique used to measure if universal trait dimensions, there are so many traits some must co-occur. test large numbers
5 CATTLELL
5.1 LOTS DATA - Life, Observer, Test, Subject or OT - objective test
5.1.1 Cattell distinguished between surface and source traits. SURFACE - behavioural tendencies on the surface, observed, 40 groupings of surface traits
5.1.1.1 SOURCE TRAITS - internal psychological structures, the source of surface traits, used factor analysis to find source traits. found 16 source traits
5.1.1.1.1 16 source traits in three categories - ability traits (skills), temprament traits (emotional life) and dynamic traits (motivational)
5.1.1.1.1.1 examples of 16 source traits on polar opposites e.g. one would be outgoing - reserved OR stable - emotional
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 his findings were mostly due to large amounts of Q data, although looked at L data first and later used OT.
5.1.1.2 EVALUATION - addressed all major aspects of personality, he laid a foundation for future research. 16 p.f.q used widely today. however large factor no
5.2 Cattell found similar results across cultures, ages and different types of data. as well as predicting behaviour and the genetics basis of traits
5.3 Cattell distinguished states and roles. STATES - refers to emotions and moods, e.g. anxiety, depression. ROLES - linked to social roles e.g. football
6 EYSENCK
6.1 criticised cattell for having so many traits, eysenck also influenced by factor analysis. he presumed a biological foundation of each trait.
6.1.1 eysenck did factor analysis and then secondary factor analysis. e.g. correlations first, then intercorrelations,
6.1.1.1 secondary analysis found factors that were independent, not correlated with another. first saw two super factors, intra-extraversion & neuroticism
6.1.1.1.1 LATER THEORY - PEN. added psychoticism (abnormal, aggressive, coldness)
6.1.1.1.2 biological basis due to variations in personality between ancient world and contemporary society. social differences between intra and extraverts
6.2 Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. objective tests, e.g. lemon drop test, intro/extraverts differ in amount of saliva produced
6.3 BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF TRAITS - intro/extraverts differ in cortical arousal, introverts more arousable. this found cross-culturally, and over time.
6.3.1 individuals high on NEUROTICISM - autonomic system that responds quickly to stress and slow to decrease. PSYCHOTICISM - levels of testosterone
7 EARLY THEORIES
7.1 WILLIAM SHELDON - temprament and physique. ectomorph- slim, private, restrained. mesomorph- muscly, assertive, competitive. endomorph- fat, sociable
7.2 GALEN - blood - (passionate). black bile - (sadness). yellow bile - (angry). phlegm - (calm)
8 FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY
8.1 factor analysis between eysenck 3 and cattell 16. found 5 universal traits
8.1.1 OCEAN - OPENNESS, CONSCIENTOUSNESS, EXTRAVERSION, AGREEABLENESS, NEUROTICISM
8.1.1.1 COSTA AND MCCRAE (1999, 2003,2008) NEO-PI-R. questionnaire with 5 factors and 6 facets each. 5 structure is a human universal. biological basis
8.1.1.1.1 DERAAD & PEABBODY (2005) said that E, A, C were cross-lingual
8.1.1.1.2 Bi 5 changes over development, 7 found in childhood, therefore 5 + or - 2
9 EVALUATION
9.1 SHELDON - start of psychometric approach to personality, surveys, wide population, applied stats
9.2 ALLPORT - uniqueness of individuals, self-concept, allport stresed the limitations of trait theory, developed a list of 4500 traits, too long
9.3 CATTELL - empirical validity, reduced ALLPORTS traits, large samples, broad approach, LOTS of data, comprehensive, empirically based
9.3.1 complexity (genetics and environment) - traits PREDICT behaviour, 16 p.f. questionnaire standardised measure now
9.4 EYSENCK - emphasised genetics, large samples, factor analysis, historical samples, cross-cultural evidence, PEN translated to other languages
9.4.1 twin studies concluded genetic basis, longitudinal traits across time, socialised into traits, behavioural, eysenck TOO PARSIMONIOUS (only 3 traits),
9.4.1.1 COMPREHENSIVE theory, heavy focus on genetics not on social context, personality determines contexts we seek out, theory has APPLIED VALUE. RIGOROUS APPROACH, GOOD DESCRIPTION AND EXPLANATION AND HEURISTIC VALUE
9.5 FIVE FACTOR MODEL EVAL - many sources used to draw conclusion, Big 5 UNIVERSAL, large samples, factor analysed, data then hypothesis, data-derived hypothesis
9.5.1 COSTA AND MCCRAE - NEO-PI-R allows measurement at general level, NEO-PI-R translated into other languages, traits stable and genetic basis
9.6 OVERALL TRAIT EVALUATION - not 100% consensus on big 5, need scientific evidence against big 5. Big 5 doesn't measure traits such as MORAL / IMMORAL. if evaluative traits were included we would have 7. trait approaches over rely on trait measures,
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