Psychology A1

Ellie Hughes
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Incomplete, but a mind map of AQA A AS Psychology (1)

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Ellie Hughes
Created by Ellie Hughes over 4 years ago
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Psychology A1
1 Memory
1.1 Sensory
1.1.1 Duration: fractions of a second
1.1.2 Capacity: too small to quantify
1.1.3 Encoding: raw form
1.2 STM
1.2.1 Duration: 20-30s
1.2.1.1 Peterson and Peterson: Consonant Trigrams/Counting backwards.
1.2.1.2 Factors affecting
1.2.1.2.1 Maintenance rehearsal
1.2.1.2.2 Deliberate intention to recall
1.2.1.2.3 Amount of information to be retained
1.2.2 Capacity: 7 +/- 2
1.2.2.1 Baddeley: Word Length: remember more short than long words
1.2.2.2 Factors affecting
1.2.2.2.1 Rhythmic grouping
1.2.2.2.2 Influence of LTM
1.2.2.2.3 Reading aloud
1.2.2.2.4 Pronunciation time
1.2.3 Encoding: Acoustic/Visual
1.2.3.1 Baddeley: acoustically and semantically similar/dissimilar words (A,S 55%, A,D 75%)
1.2.3.2 Factors affecting
1.2.3.2.1 Other ways to encode
1.2.3.2.2 The sound of words
1.3 LTM
1.3.1 Duration: Lifetime
1.3.1.1 Bahrick et al: Year book; recall less accurate than matching
1.3.1.2 Factors affecting
1.3.1.2.1 How duration is measured
1.3.1.2.2 Thorough learning
1.3.1.2.3 Childhood amnesia
1.3.2 Capacity: limitless "permastore"
1.3.3 Encoding: Semantic
1.4 Eyewitness Testimony
1.4.1 Cognitive Interview
1.4.1.1 Recall every detail
1.4.1.2 Recall events in a different order
1.4.1.3 Different perspective
1.4.1.4 Recreate the context
1.4.2 Anxiety
1.4.2.1 Loftus: Weapon focus phenomenom
1.4.3 Age
1.4.3.1 Elderly
1.4.3.1.1 Alzheimer's
1.4.3.1.2 Schemas
1.4.3.2 Children
1.4.3.2.1 Demand Characteristics "look good"
1.4.4 Consequences
1.4.4.1 More accurate when outcomes are severe
1.4.5 How the witnesses are tested
1.4.5.1 Forced = more inaccurate than volunteered
1.4.6 Leading questions
1.4.6.1 "a barn" / "THE barn"
1.4.7 Misleading information
1.4.7.1 Barn or no barn, group with misled 17% fell for it
1.5 Improvement
1.5.1 Loci
1.5.2 Mneumonics
1.5.3 Pay attention
1.5.4 Elaborate rehearsal
1.5.5 State dependent retrieval - mood and setting
1.5.6 Peg words
1.6 Models
1.6.1 WMM
1.6.2 MSM
1.7 Interface
1.7.1 Proactive - old interferes with new
1.7.2 Retroactive - new interferes with old
2 Attachment
2.1 Learning theory (Behavioural)
2.1.1 Classical Conditioning
2.1.1.1 Unconditioned reinforcer
2.1.1.1.1 Conditioned response
2.1.1.2 Association
2.1.1.3 Pavlov's dogs
2.1.2 Operant conditioning
2.1.2.1 Drive state
2.1.2.1.1 Rewards
2.1.3 Cupboard love
2.1.3.1 Harlow and Harlow's monkeys
2.2 A strong emotional, reciprocal bond between infant and primary caregiver
2.2.1 4 Criteria
2.2.1.1 Orientates around primary caregiver
2.2.1.2 Distress upon separation
2.2.1.3 Pleasure upon reunion
2.2.1.4 Seek proximity, particularly when stressed
2.3 Evolutionary (Bowlby)
2.3.1 Innate programming
2.3.1.1 Imprinting
2.3.1.1.1 Lorenz' goslings
2.3.1.2 Infants' temperament
2.3.1.3 Caregiver Sensitivity Hypothesis
2.3.2 Critical period
2.3.2.1 2½ years
2.3.2.1.1 Sensitive period, adoption
2.3.3 Continuity hypothesis
2.3.3.1 Monotropy
2.3.3.2 Internal working model
2.4 Disruptions in Attachment
2.4.1 Separation: time apart from primary caregiver with the intent of reunition
2.4.2 Deprivation: prolonged separation
2.4.3 Privation: no attachment at all
2.4.3.1 Reactive Attachment Disorder
2.4.3.1.1 "Crazy Beth" - Child of Rage

Annotations:

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2-Re_Fl_L4
2.5 Day Care
2.6 Strange Situation
2.6.1 Ainsworth and Method
2.6.2 Cultural Variation
2.6.2.1 Takahashi
2.6.2.1.1 Japanese children, extremely distressed and couldn't complete
2.6.2.2 Kroonenberg and Van Ijzendoorn
2.6.2.2.1 Collectivist
2.6.2.2.1.1 China, lowest
2.6.2.2.2 Individualistic
2.6.2.2.2.1 UK, highest secure
2.6.2.2.3 8 countries, 32 studies; meta analysis - 70% Secure, 15% IR, 15% IA
2.6.3 Types
2.6.3.1 Secure
2.6.3.2 Insecure Avoidant
2.6.3.3 Insecure Resistant
3 Research Methods