Psychology A1

Ellie Hughes
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Incomplete, but a mind map of AQA A AS Psychology (1)

Ellie Hughes
Created by Ellie Hughes over 4 years ago
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Psychology A1
1 Memory
1.1 Sensory
1.1.1 Duration: fractions of a second
1.1.2 Capacity: too small to quantify
1.1.3 Encoding: raw form
1.2 STM
1.2.1 Duration: 20-30s Peterson and Peterson: Consonant Trigrams/Counting backwards. Factors affecting Maintenance rehearsal Deliberate intention to recall Amount of information to be retained
1.2.2 Capacity: 7 +/- 2 Baddeley: Word Length: remember more short than long words Factors affecting Rhythmic grouping Influence of LTM Reading aloud Pronunciation time
1.2.3 Encoding: Acoustic/Visual Baddeley: acoustically and semantically similar/dissimilar words (A,S 55%, A,D 75%) Factors affecting Other ways to encode The sound of words
1.3 LTM
1.3.1 Duration: Lifetime Bahrick et al: Year book; recall less accurate than matching Factors affecting How duration is measured Thorough learning Childhood amnesia
1.3.2 Capacity: limitless "permastore"
1.3.3 Encoding: Semantic
1.4 Eyewitness Testimony
1.4.1 Cognitive Interview Recall every detail Recall events in a different order Different perspective Recreate the context
1.4.2 Anxiety Loftus: Weapon focus phenomenom
1.4.3 Age Elderly Alzheimer's Schemas Children Demand Characteristics "look good"
1.4.4 Consequences More accurate when outcomes are severe
1.4.5 How the witnesses are tested Forced = more inaccurate than volunteered
1.4.6 Leading questions "a barn" / "THE barn"
1.4.7 Misleading information Barn or no barn, group with misled 17% fell for it
1.5 Improvement
1.5.1 Loci
1.5.2 Mneumonics
1.5.3 Pay attention
1.5.4 Elaborate rehearsal
1.5.5 State dependent retrieval - mood and setting
1.5.6 Peg words
1.6 Models
1.6.1 WMM
1.6.2 MSM
1.7 Interface
1.7.1 Proactive - old interferes with new
1.7.2 Retroactive - new interferes with old
2 Attachment
2.1 Learning theory (Behavioural)
2.1.1 Classical Conditioning Unconditioned reinforcer Conditioned response Association Pavlov's dogs
2.1.2 Operant conditioning Drive state Rewards
2.1.3 Cupboard love Harlow and Harlow's monkeys
2.2 A strong emotional, reciprocal bond between infant and primary caregiver
2.2.1 4 Criteria Orientates around primary caregiver Distress upon separation Pleasure upon reunion Seek proximity, particularly when stressed
2.3 Evolutionary (Bowlby)
2.3.1 Innate programming Imprinting Lorenz' goslings Infants' temperament Caregiver Sensitivity Hypothesis
2.3.2 Critical period 2½ years Sensitive period, adoption
2.3.3 Continuity hypothesis Monotropy Internal working model
2.4 Disruptions in Attachment
2.4.1 Separation: time apart from primary caregiver with the intent of reunition
2.4.2 Deprivation: prolonged separation
2.4.3 Privation: no attachment at all Reactive Attachment Disorder "Crazy Beth" - Child of Rage


2.5 Day Care
2.6 Strange Situation
2.6.1 Ainsworth and Method
2.6.2 Cultural Variation Takahashi Japanese children, extremely distressed and couldn't complete Kroonenberg and Van Ijzendoorn Collectivist China, lowest Individualistic UK, highest secure 8 countries, 32 studies; meta analysis - 70% Secure, 15% IR, 15% IA
2.6.3 Types Secure Insecure Avoidant Insecure Resistant
3 Research Methods