Inferior Mediastinum

Farah  Mansour
Mind Map by Farah Mansour, updated more than 1 year ago
Farah  Mansour
Created by Farah Mansour almost 4 years ago
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Inferior mediastinum
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Inferior Mediastinum
1 Anterior Mediastinum
1.1 Behind the body and xiphoid process of the sternum and in front of the middle mediastinum
1.2 Boundaries
1.2.1 Anterior : the body of the sternum.
1.2.2 Posterior : middle mediastinum (the pericardium)
1.2.3 On each side : the mediastinal layer of pleura.
1.3 Contents
1.3.1 Superior and inferior sternopericardial ligaments.
1.3.2 Part of the thymus gland
1.3.2.1 Important component of the lymphatic system.
1.3.2.2 Lies behind the manubrium sterni & may extend up into the neck or down in the anterior mediastinum.
1.3.2.3 It appears large at time of birth, gradually replaced by fat in adult life.
1.3.3 Internal mammary artery
1.3.4 Two to three lymph nodes and lymphatics.
1.3.5 Sternocostalis muscle. (part of transversus thoracis muscles)
1.3.6 Areolar tissue.
2 Middle Meiastinum
2.1 Is the part of the inferior mediastinum that is occupied by the pericardium and its contents.
2.2 Boundaries
2.2.1 Superiorly: the imaginary horizontal plane
2.2.2 Inferiorly: diaphragm.
2.2.3 Anteriorly: anterior mediastinum.
2.2.4 Posteriorly: posterior mediastinum
2.3 Contents
2.3.1 The pericardium and the heart.
2.3.2 Ascending aorta
2.3.3 The pulmonary trunk
2.3.4 The lower half of the SVC
2.3.5 The upper most part of the IVC
2.3.6 The four pulmonary veins.
2.3.7 Bifurcation of pulmonary trunk into right and left pulmonary arteries.
2.3.8 Bifurcation of the trachea.
2.3.9 The right and left phrenic nerves: along the sides of the pericardium.
2.3.10 Inferior tracheobronchial lymph nodes: below the bifurcation of the trachea.
3 Posterior Mediastinum
3.1 Between the pericardium and the vertebral column
3.2 Boundaries
3.2.1 Superiorly: the imaginary horizontal plane
3.2.2 Inferiorly: diaphragm.
3.2.3 Anteriorly: the pericardium above , and the diaphragm below.
3.2.4 Posteriorly: the lower 8 thoracic vertebrae (from the 5th to the 12th).
3.3 Contents
3.3.1 Descending thoracic aorta.
3.3.1.1 (the aorta is ascending in the middle mediastinum, arch in the superior, and descending in the posterior)
3.3.2 Esophagus: on the right side of the aorta, then crosses in front of its lower part
3.3.2.1 This is why the aortic opening of the diagram is the most posterior (level of T12), while the one anterior to it is the esophageal (level of T10) – vena cava opening is at T8)
3.3.3 Azygos and hemiazygos veins.
3.3.4 The two vagi nerves:
3.3.4.1 The right vagus >> posterior gastric nerve
3.3.4.2 the left vagus >> anterior gastric nerve (due to the rotation of the stomach during the development of the GIT)
3.3.5 The splanchnic nerves (greater, lesser and lowest splanchnic nerves): they arise from the sympathetic trunk.
3.3.6 The thoracic duct: ascends on the right side of the esophagus till the level of the sternal angle where it becomes on the left side of the esophagus.
3.3.7 Posterior mediastinal lymph nodes.
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