Poverty and Inequality

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Sociology (Poverty and Inequality) Mind Map on Poverty and Inequality, created by nadiaa on 05/03/2013.

Created by nadiaa over 6 years ago
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Poverty and Inequality
1 Social Exclusion
1.1 Social Exclusion - homelessness
1.2 Economical Exclusion - unemployment
1.3 Political Exclusion - unable to vote
1.4 Cultural Exclusion - lack of leisure
1.5 Marginalization
1.5.1 Pushed aside in society
2 Poverty
2.1 Absolute
2.1.1 Income not enough to access necessities
2.1.2 Bare minimum level of survival
2.1.3 Below line = poor Above line = not poor
2.1.4 Advantage - clear poverty line
2.2 Relative
2.2.1 Cannot take part in normal activities due to lack of money
2.2.2 Where people stand relative to others in society
2.2.3 People expect more than avoiding starvation even if items owned by most are not necessary
2.2.4 Disadvantage - unclear where the line should be drawn
3 Life Chances
3.1 Opportunities for achieving living standards
3.2 Weber - affected by class position
3.3 More capital = better life chances
3.3.1 Economic - wealth, money and possessions
3.3.2 Cultural - classes have different tastes
3.3.3 Human - skills and qualifications
3.3.4 Social - networks and levels of trust
4 Income
4.1 Money received with given time
4.2 Original = from employment etc Disposable = original minus taxes etc
4.3 Statistics
4.3.1 British Household Panel -doesn't cover homeless
4.3.2 New Earnings - those earning below income tax threshold not included
4.3.3 Time of sample - income can change very quickly
4.4 Inequality
4.4.1 Ageing population - more pensions so more low incomes
4.4.2 Benefits - more benefits so more low incomes
4.4.3 Tax cuts - beneficial to high earners
4.4.4 Low minimum wage
4.4.5 Labour market - increasing gap between work rich and work less households
5 Wealth
5.1 Possessions held at given time that can be turned into cash to benefit owner
5.2 Linked to status, power and prestige
5.3 Often inherited e.g. Royal family
5.4 Trends
5.4.1 Increased ownership of consumer goods
5.4.2 People become wealthier as they get older
5.5 Statistics
5.5.1 Surveys - people not willing to reveal details
5.5.2 Rich lists - time consuming and complex, relying on estimates
5.5.3 Inland Revenue - calculates value of estate but many distribute assets while alive
6 Underclass
6.1 Suffer economic disadvantage and material hardship
6.2 Life chances are worse
6.3 Children are socialised into this life so values are passed down
6.4 Field - recruits from three main groups
6.4.1 Long term unemployed, lone parent families and pensioners
6.5 Murray - New Rabble
6.5.1 Distinctive and unattractive values, living off crime and benefits
6.5.2 Irresponsible parents and poor role models
6.5.3 Low skilled, poorly educated, unwilling to get a job
6.6 Concept assumes people are poor through their own fault

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