1/4 of people who have had a schizophrenic episode recover and never have it
again, and 1/4 of those who have schizophrenia have it continuously, 4 kinds of
Biological explanation; Dopamine hypothesis
HOW IS IT ADMINISTERED
HOW IS IT MONITORED
HOW DOES IT WORK
Dopamine refers to neurotransmitter functioning. Drugs reduce the amount of
dopamine by blocking dopamine receptors. Excess dopamine must be the cause of
schizophrenia. Sensitivity to dopamine can arise from genetic inheritance.
Development of the receptors in one area might inhibit their development in
another. There is some evidence that people who have schizophrenia have enlarged
ventricles and smaller frontal lobes. any of these features link with prefrontal cortex
damage. This area of the brain finishes developing in adolesence and so therefore
links with common onset at that age.
Social Class explanation
''people with schizophrenia tend to be from a lower class''
FOR: EVIDENCE: Harrison et al, Eaton et al, NATURE: Parents, genetically can pass down the likelihood of being prone to
stress and druge use which can trigger the disorder. NURTURE: where or how they are brought up, poverty, education, social
support, care, living conditions etc. SCIENTIFIC: PET scans to test brains of people in different social classes, it is hard to
separate environmental factors to see if they cause schizophrenia, as they could be the result of schizophrenia - as the social
drift says. APPLICATION: could use this info to set up more support groups and centres in deprived city areas,talk about the
issue in schools, knowing social class of a patient can be considered when diagnosing
AGAINST:EVIDENCE: does not show cause and effect and is difficult to draw completely valid conclusions from
correlational evidence. NATURE VS NURTURE: people who live in lower classes, living in poverty might be more likely to
be diagnosed suggesting a diagnosing problem, not environmental. Social disadvantage & environmental factors may not
be main cause but a factor that increases likelihood of development. VALIDITY: those in lower socio-economic groups
don't hide it, DSM not always accurate. APPLICATION: could be that poverty, unemployment & lack of social support are
stressirs at it is this stress that causes the schizophrenia not environment itself.