A2 English Lang: Child Speech 1

abster
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Mind Map on A2 English Lang: Child Speech 1, created by abster on 03/31/2014.

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abster
Created by abster over 5 years ago
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A2 English Lang: Child Speech 1
1 The stages of development:
1.1 The Pre-Verbal stages:
1.1.1 Vegative
1.1.1.1 This is the sound or discomfort or reflexive actions. Usually around the age of 0-4 months
1.1.2 Cooing
1.1.2.1 these are comfort sounds and vocal play using open mouth vowel sounds at the age of 4-7 months
1.1.3 Babbling
1.1.3.1 repeated patterns of consonant and vowel sounds around the age of 6-12 months
1.1.4 Proto-words
1.1.4.1 these are word like vocalisations, but they down match actual words but they consist of the same meaning, this can also be known as scribble talk. This can be accompanied by gestures to support a verbal message
1.2 Lexical and grammatical stages:
1.2.1 Holophrastic/ one word
1.2.1.1 These are one word utterances, or one word phrases, happens during the age gap of: 12-18 months
1.2.2 Two word:
1.2.2.1 this is two word combinations: happens between the ages of 18- 24 months
1.2.3 Telegraphic
1.2.3.1 this is three or more words combined and occurs during the ages of 24-36 months
1.2.4 Post-telegraphic
1.2.4.1 these are more grammatically complex sentences and occurs when a child is 36+
2 THEORIES!
2.1 Nativist/ innateness
2.1.1 this is the idea that all languages have a universal grammar
2.1.2 All children are born with a LAD (language acquisition device) which enable the child to use the words that they hear and the grammar that they use straight away
2.1.2.1 CHOMSKY believes that children are pre programmed with the rules of grammar from birth and once they are exposed to language their LAD is stimulated
2.1.3 NOAM CHOMSKY
2.2 Behaviourist/ imitation
2.2.1 B.F SKINNER
2.2.2 this is the idea that each child starts as a blank slate and to learn they imitate adult language that gains a positive reinforcement, but also needs some negative reinforcement if something is said wrong!
2.2.3 when skinner was investigating he discovered that children produce utterances that they could never had heard before and make corrections to their grammar. This suggested that some children build up rules of language on their own
2.3 input/ interactionist theory
2.3.1 JEROME BRUNER
2.3.2 This is when people believe that children need assistance to acquire language.
2.3.2.1 This is implying that this doesn't only help the child acquire language but the meaning behind the lexis and sentences
2.3.2.1.1 The way that interactionists believed that the children would learn would be through ritualised situations and scenarios such as bedtime and going to school
2.3.3 when thinking about interaction it is all about LASS, this is the Language Aquisition Support System.
2.4 Cognitive theory
2.4.1 JEAN PIAGET & LEV VYGOTSKY
2.4.2 Jean Piaget argued that children need to understand the concept of language before they could use language.
2.4.3 Lev Vygotsky viewed that language had two separate role: speech and one on the basis of thought
3 Early phonological errors
3.1 Deletion:
3.1.1 omitting the FINAL consonant in words
3.2 Substitution:
3.2.1 Substuting one sound for another, especially the harder sounds that develop later
3.3 Addition:
3.3.1 adding an extra vowel sound to the endings of words, creating a CVCV pattern
3.4 Assimilation:
3.4.1 changing one consonant or vowel for another
3.5 Reduplication:
3.5.1 repeating the whole syllable
3.6 CCR:
3.6.1 reducing clusters into smaller units
3.7 Deletion of under stressed syllables
3.7.1 omitting the opening syllable in polysyllabic words
4 Developing pragmatics
4.1 Halliday's language functions:
4.1.1 Instrumental: this language is used to fulfil and need. E.g "want milk"
4.1.2 Regulatory: this language is used to influence the behaviour of others
4.1.3 Interactional: this is to develop and maintain social relationships
4.1.4 Personal: this is to convey individuals opinions, ideas and personal identity
4.1.5 Representational: this is to convey facts and information
4.1.6 Imaginative: this is to create and imaginary world that may be seen predominatly in play
4.1.7 Heuristic: to learn more about the environment
4.2 Dore's language functions
4.2.1 labelling: naming a person, object or thing
4.2.2 Repeating: repeating an adult word or utterance
4.2.3 answering: responding to an utterance of another speaker
4.2.4 requesting an action: asking for something to be done for them
4.2.5 calling: getting attention by shouting
4.2.6 greeting: greeting someone or something
4.2.7 Protesting: objecting to requests from other
4.2.8 Practising: using language when no adult is present

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