Biopsychology: Function of Neurons

Lauren Pickett
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Biopsychology: Function of Neurons, created by Lauren Pickett on 03/31/2014.

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Lauren Pickett
Created by Lauren Pickett over 5 years ago
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Biopsychology: Function of Neurons
1 Humans have two control systems in order to respond the environment.
1.1 Nervous system: Is divided into two main sub systems.
1.1.1 Central nervous system(CNS) consists of brain and spinal cord.
1.1.1.1 Brain
1.1.1.2 Spinal Cord
1.1.2 The peripheral system(PNS) which consists of millions of neurons that carry messages to and from CNS.
1.1.2.1 Autonomic system(ANS)
1.1.2.1.1 Sympathetic nervous system.
1.1.2.1.2 Parasympathetic nervous system.
1.1.2.2 Somatic nervous system(SANS)
1.2 Endocrine system
2 Motor Neurons: Carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord(CNS) to the organs and muscles in the body.
2.1 A motor neuron has a cell body with many dendrites branching off it, they have a large surface area in order to connect with other neurons and carry nerve impulses towards the cell body.
2.1.1 The axon then carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body, the length of axons vary.
2.1.1.1 Surrounding the axon is schwann cells that wrap the axon to from an insulating layer called a myelin sheath.
2.1.1.1.1 At the end the axon divides into a number of branches called "Synaptic terminals", there is an small gap between then the synaptic terminals and dendrites of the receiving neuron. This gap is know as the "Synapse".
3 Sensory Neurons: Carry messages from the receptors in the body(PNS) to the brain & spinal cord.
3.1 Receptors such as our sense organs, muscles, skin or joints detect physical & chemical changes in the body and relay these messages via sensory neurons to the CNS.
4 Interconnecting neurons: are found in our visual system,brain & spinal cord. Recieve messages from the sensory neurons and pass these messages to other interconnecting neurons.
4.1 E.G. In reflex arc, like an knee jerk, hitting the knee is detected by receptor cells in the PNS, which then conveys a message along a sensory neuron. The message reaches the CNS where it connects with interconnecting neurons. It then transfers this message to a motor neuron, this then takes it to an effector such as a muscle.
5 Synaptic Transmission: A sysnapse is a specialised gap that allows electrical messages from one neuron to transfer to an adjacent neuron.
5.1 When an nerve impulse travels down an axon it arrives at pre-synaptic terminals. This arrival triggers the realeas of neurotransmitters, they must be taken up immediatley by the post synaptic neuron otherwise it will be reasborbed by the synaptic terminals it was released.
5.1.1 If successfully transmitted the nerve impulse is then carried along the post-synaptic neuron until it reaches the next synaptic terminal where the message will continue to pass on via electrical impulses.
6 Neurotransmitter - A chemical substance released from a synaptic vesicle that affects the transfer of an impulse to another nerve or muscle.

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