The Industrial Revolution

Angel Peña Calvo
Mind Map by Angel Peña Calvo, updated more than 1 year ago
Angel Peña Calvo
Created by Angel Peña Calvo over 4 years ago
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The industrial revolution

Resource summary

The Industrial Revolution

Annotations:

  • The widespread of machinery made profound economic and social changes.
  1. The origins
    1. The demographic revolution
      1. Nutrition

        Annotations:

        • Improved,illness resistance, thanks to the agicltural advances and new diet.
        1. Hygiene

          Annotations:

          • Use of soap , cotton clothes, access to clean drinking water and cleaner streets.
          1. Public health

            Annotations:

            • The discovery of the vaccine agaisnt the smallpox.New hospitals.
            1. Epidemics

              Annotations:

              •  Less epidemics due to the improvement of nutrition , hygiene , public health.
            2. Other factors
              1. Extensive markets

                Annotations:

                • Britain had a healthy domestic market. They sold its products in their colonies. Big profits were invested in industries.
                1. New mentality

                  Annotations:

                  • Opened to investment , business risk and to pursue of profit. Parliament pass laws favourable to trade and business.
                  1. Abundance of resources

                    Annotations:

                    • Britain was rich with iron and coal deposits.
                  2. The agricultural revolution

                    Annotations:

                    • With this factors , agriculture increased , farmers receive a greater income , which was invested in industry.
                    1. Techniques

                      Annotations:

                      • The Norfolk system: to divide the field into four and alternate different crops in each, to not leaving a field into fallow.More animals meant more manure , a fertiliser .
                      1. Land ownership

                        Annotations:

                        • No farming communal lands . Land became private property. It was bought to make profit.  
                        1. Livestock farming

                          Annotations:

                          • Land to grow fodder .The number of head of livestock increased on each farm.
                      2. The First Industrial Revolution
                        1. Factories

                          Annotations:

                          • New machines , faster production , big factories. First powered with hydraulic energy later steam engine. Specialisation and division of labours . Costs decreased and prices too.
                          1. Textile industry

                            Annotations:

                            • Colonies grew cotton (cheap abundant raw material).It introduce technical innovations in spinning and weaving. Later were steam-powered , big workforce made the products cheap , thet flooded the market. Textile boom increase activity in other sectors.
                            1. Iron industry

                              Annotations:

                              • Iron became cheaper after the blast furnace using coal. New furnace made large amounts of iron. This industry grew thanks to the great demand of its products.
                              1. Economic liberalism

                                Annotations:

                                • Developed by Adam Smith.
                                1. Economic freedom

                                  Annotations:

                                  • Freedom to create companies , to hire workers , set conditions and prices the products.
                                  1. Invisible hand

                                    Annotations:

                                    • The economy adjust itself.Salaries were regulated by the law of supply and demand.
                                    1. Division of labour

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Specialised , increased productivity and production.
                                  2. The transport revolution
                                    1. Navigation

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Fast , safe transport. Canals were constructed for transport . Steamboats were built , first for.  rivers and later in  seas.
                                      1. Railway

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Steam engine and iron made it possible.Trasport of coal , later cargo railways, and finally public transport. Was fast , safe and cheap. Later was built worldwide.
                                        1. Impact

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Trade transport times and costs were reduced. Easier travelling.  Specialisation of countries , some manufacturers and other providers of raw material. Strengthened of mining , metallurgy and iron industry. Nutrition improved. Easy to emigrate 
                                        2. The Second Industrial Revolution
                                          1. Factors
                                            1. New system of production
                                              1. Taylorism

                                                Annotations:

                                                • Small time tasks specialisation paid according to the work.
                                                1. Assembly line

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • Products were passed from one person to another . Time saving and increased their output.
                                                  1. Mass production

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Identical parts were manufactured before the assembletion of the final product. Large quantity of goods could be made ,the production costs were reduced.
                                                    1. Corporate groups

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Government regulate laws to prevent unfair monopolies.
                                                      1. Cartels

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • Same bussines companies agree the production, distribuition and prices.
                                                        1. Holding company

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • Company that owns most of the shares of other companies and controls them. 
                                                          1. Trust

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • Companies that covers all the stages in the product manufacturation and control markets and eliminate competition
                                                        2. Large companies and modern banking

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • Creation of corporations, the capital was divided into shares and trade with it in the stock market.Shareholders Banks were the lenders , and investors. The birth of the financial capitalism.
                                                          1. New energy sources
                                                            1. Petroleum

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • First oils. The combustion engine made it to grow importance.
                                                              1. Electricity

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • To power machines and railways and new forms of comunication
                                                              2. New industries
                                                                1. Iron and steel industry

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • The Bessemer converter produced large amount of them at a low price.
                                                                  1. Chemical industry

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • Rubber and petroleum and other raw product made new products like pharmaceuticals , synthetics and dynamite.
                                                                    1. Electrical industry

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • Was produced and distribuited on a large scale.
                                                                2. The spread of the Industrial Revolution
                                                                  1. The Industrial Revolution in Europe

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • In Europe the Industralisation was little which involved Belgium, Germany, France and Sweden.
                                                                    1. Belgium

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      •  They get benefitted from their natural resources,craftsmanship. And their indutries were textiles, iron and steel.
                                                                      1. Germany

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • The indutralization was slowed. They crated a customs union to overcome trade barries and create domestic markets.Their industries were iron and steel, and metallurgy.
                                                                        1. France

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • The industralisation of france began between 1830 and 1850. France did not became us industralised as Britain.
                                                                          1. Sweden

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • They were a big iron industry.
                                                                          2. Industralization in USA
                                                                            1. Extensive agricultural production

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • rapid mechanisation in agriculture
                                                                              1. Abundant natural resources

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • These included iron, coal and petroleum
                                                                                1. Specialised production

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • Industrial north supplied wit cotton from the south, and food from th west.
                                                                                  1. Large domestic market

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • Rapid construction of railway network from coast to coast.
                                                                                    1. Innovation

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • They created new systems of production and new types of companies.
                                                                                    2. Japan under Emperor Meji
                                                                                      1. Meiji period

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • This period was from 1868 to 1912 when the feudalism end and brought Japan into the Industrial Age.
                                                                                        1. Industralisation

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          • This happened mid-19th century, they combined the tradition of Japan with the modern technology. It was driven by the state which built industries and railways
                                                                                          1. Indutries

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • Main industries were textiles and heavy indutries.
                                                                                          2. Russia
                                                                                            1. Industralisation

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • Began late 19th century and was driven by the state invesment in industries and railway, foreign investment and state protectionism which imports taxes.
                                                                                          3. The effects of industrlisation
                                                                                            1. Population growth
                                                                                              1. Death Rate decreased
                                                                                                1. Improved food supply
                                                                                                  1. Public hygiene
                                                                                                    1. New hospitals
                                                                                                      1. Life expactancy increased
                                                                                                      2. Birth Rate remained high
                                                                                                        1. Got married young and had more children
                                                                                                      3. An age of migration
                                                                                                        1. Farm work become increasingly mechanised
                                                                                                          1. Cities were the centres of production
                                                                                                            1. Peasant migrated to cities

                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                              • In search of job. In one century, from 1800 to 1900 the percentage of people living in cities grew a 30 %
                                                                                                              1. Which led to urbanisation
                                                                                                                1. Transoceanic migration

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  • Most of them migrated to America (United States received 60% of European emigrants). Other migrated to Australia and New Zealand.
                                                                                                                  1. 1870

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • Emigrants were British and northern European
                                                                                                                    1. 1870-1914

                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                      • Emigrants were Italian, Spanish, Greek and Turkish
                                                                                                                2. The class system
                                                                                                                  1. A new society

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • Industrial society was divided in 3:upper, middle and lower classes. It was based in judicial equality althoug there was a inequality Women. 
                                                                                                                    1. The decline of the aristocracy

                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                      • 19th century the aristocracy lost dominance over peasant were abolished. 20th century aristocrats still held position in goverment.
                                                                                                                      1. The emergence of the bourgeoisie

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        • They became the most powerful class in industrial society. They lived in neighbourhoods on the outskirts. They attributed wealth with"bourgeois values"
                                                                                                                        1. middle class

                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                          • Was a large middle and diverse class which emerged in 19th. Thet were less wealth than bougeoisie but they were educated and thanks to the reforms they will be part of the political life.
                                                                                                                          1. The lower class
                                                                                                                            1. Peasants
                                                                                                                              1. The proletariat
                                                                                                                                1. House servants
                                                                                                                              2. Labour movement

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • Workers organised into groups to pressure factory owners and government, which was the only way to improve the situation.
                                                                                                                                1. Early labour movements
                                                                                                                                  1. Luddism

                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                    • New technologies made skilled workers to lose their jobs in textile industry, so they destroyed some facory machines in response.
                                                                                                                                    1. Chartism

                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                      • It was a movement with political goals. It demanded labour rights and universal suffrage, because at that time they could not vote.
                                                                                                                                      1. Trade unions

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        • Demanded better salaries, shorter work days, end to child labour, etc. Their means of pressure were strikes, in which workers refused to work until demands were met.
                                                                                                                                      2. Marxism and Anarchism

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        • There was a class struggle between oppresors (the bourgeoisie) and the oppressed (the workers).
                                                                                                                                        1. Marx proposed a revolution

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • Firs would be a stage of proletarian dictatorship (state control society) and then a communist society (without social classes).
                                                                                                                                          1. To destroy capitalism and give power to workers
                                                                                                                                            1. Socialist parties developed

                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                              • 1875
                                                                                                                                            2. Anarchism

                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                              • Founders: Pierre-Joseph and Mikhail Bakunin
                                                                                                                                              1. Opposed any form of state
                                                                                                                                                1. Rejected political parties and elections
                                                                                                                                                  1. Favoured trade unions and strikes
                                                                                                                                                2. The worker's internationals

                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                  • Helped to achieve social advances in many countries, such as a shorter work day or restrictions on child labour.
                                                                                                                                                  1. Socialist International

                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                    • Created the International workers' Day.
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