Biogeochemical cycles

Marina Schultz
Mind Map by Marina Schultz, updated more than 1 year ago
Marina Schultz
Created by Marina Schultz over 3 years ago
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the biogeochemical cycles- mainly the carbon cycle. everything else is incomplete
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Biogeochemical cycles
1 Carbon Cycle
1.1 Carbon Source
1.1.1 Definition: Anything that releases more carbon than it absorbs
1.1.2 Releases carbon through combustion
1.1.2.1 Combustion is the process by which a liquid or gaseous fuel is oxidized (burned), creating carbon dioxide (in the case of hydrocarbons), water, other chemicals, and heat. Combustion of fossil fuels is currently the chief source of energy for humanity.
1.1.2.1.1 fossil fuel- a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms
1.1.2.1.1.1 carbon dioxide- a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, CO 2, present in the atmosphere and formed during respiration, usually obtained from coal, coke, or natural gas by combustion, from carbohydrates by fermentation, by reaction of acid with limestone or other carbonates, or naturally from springs: used extensively in industry as dry ice, or carbon dioxide snow, in carbonated beverages, fire extinguishers, etc
1.1.2.1.2
1.1.3 Releases carbon with respiration
1.1.3.1 Cellular respiration releases carbon dioxide, which is used in photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in turn releases oxygen used in respiration. Animals and other heterotrophs depend on green organisms for organic food, energy, and oxygen. In the carbon cycle, organisms exchange carbon dioxide with the atmosphere.
1.1.3.1.1
1.1.3.2 helps form oxygen and glucose
1.1.3.2.1 O2+C6H12O6
1.1.3.2.1.1
1.1.3.2.1.2 H2O
1.1.3.2.1.2.1 Light Dependent Reactions
1.1.3.2.1.2.1.1 Oxygen
1.1.3.2.1.2.1.1.1
1.1.3.2.1.2.1.2 ATP
1.1.3.2.1.2.1.2.1 energy mover
1.1.3.2.1.2.1.3 Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis. The first major set of processes in photosynthesis, in which light energy is initially converted into chemical energy as ATP and NADPH, takes place across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, between the chloroplast stroma and the thylakoid space.
1.1.3.2.1.2.2 CO2
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1 Light Independent reactions (Calvin Cycle)
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1.1 Glucose
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1.1.1 Photosynthesis, process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose. In so doing, photosynthesis provides the basic energy source for virtually all organisms. An extremely important byproduct of photosynthesis is oxygen, on which most organisms depend
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1.2 The Calvin cycle is the set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts during photosynthesis. The cycle is light-independent because it takes place after the energy has been captured from sunlight.
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1.2.1 Chloroplast- a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1.2.2 Photosnthesis- the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1.2.2.1
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1.2.3 The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside of the thylakoid membranes.
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1.2.3.1 thylakoid- each of a number of flattened sacs inside a chloroplast, bounded by pigmented membranes on which the light reactions of photosynthesis take place, and arranged in stacks or grana
1.1.3.2.1.2.2.1.2.3.1.1 grana- the stacks of thylakoid
1.1.3.2.1.2.3 H Carrier
1.1.3.2.1.2.3.1 A hydrogen carrier is an organic macromolecule that transports atoms of hydrogen from one place to another inside a cell or from cell to cell for use in various metabolical processes
1.1.3.2.1.3 CO2+H2O
1.2 Carbon Sink
1.2.1 Definition: Anything that absorbs more carbon than it releases
1.3 Structure of Leaf
1.3.1 Photosynthesis is a very important factor in the leaf process
1.3.2 Cuticle- covers all areas to minimize water loss
1.3.2.1 Upper Epidermis- .This is a single layer of cells containing few or no chloroplasts. The cells are quite transparent and permit most of the light that strikes them to pass through to the underlying cells
1.3.2.1.1 palisade layer- location of photosynthesis
1.3.2.1.1.1 vein- A vein is made up of a vascular bundle. At the core of each bundle are clusters of two distinct types of conducting cells: Xylem: cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf. Phloem: cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose, produced by photosynthesis in the leaf, out of the leaf
1.3.2.1.1.1.1 xylem
1.3.2.1.1.1.1.1 phloem
1.3.2.1.1.1.2 spongy layer- Below the palisade layer is the spongy layer, which contains cells that are more spread out, allowing for air pockets
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1 lower epidermis- The lower epidermis contains stomata cells that help prevent water loss and regulate the exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, enabling plants to survive
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1.1
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Guard cells have a very important job because by opening and closing stomata, they facilitate gas exchange for photosynthesis and help minimize water loss
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1.2 stomates- Plants 'breathe' too, but they do it through tiny openings in leaves called stomata (singular: stoma). Stomata open and close to allow the intake of carbon dioxide and the release of oxygen
1.3.3 parts of the chloroplasts when looking at a leaf sideways
1.3.4 Carbohydrates are compounds produced during photosynthesis. In plants, they have two main purposes. First, they provide building blocks for plant structural components, such as cellulose (important in building cell walls). Secondly, carbohydrates are molecules that deliver energy for plant growth
2 Hydrological Cycle
2.1 Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves. Evapotranspiration is an important part of the water cycle. An element (such as a tree) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an evapotranspirator.
2.2 Percolation is part of the water cycle that occurs after precipitation and before storage during which water filters down through aerated soil due to gravity. After percolation, water is stored in groundwater reservoirs until it reaches a point where sunlight warms it and the water evaporates
2.3 Infiltration is the process by which precipitation or water soaks into subsurface soils and moves into rocks through cracks and pore spaces.
3 Nitrogen Cycle
3.1 move between soil and air
3.1.1 bacteria
3.1.1.1 nitrifying bacteris- into nitrogen
3.1.1.1.1 denitrifying bacteria- gets rid of nitrogen
3.2 nitrification- adding nitrogen
3.3 denitrification- getting rid of nitrogen
3.4 Assimilation. the process in which plants absorb ammonium, amonia ions, and nitrate ions through their roots.   Chemotroph. an organism, such as a bacterium or protozoan, that obtains its nourishment through the oxidation of inorganic chemical compounds, as opposed to photosynthesis
3.5 nitrogen fixation - the chemical processes by which atmospheric nitrogen is assimilated into organic compounds, especially by certain microorganisms as part of the nitrogen cycle.
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