Arctic - Climate Change

Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by Jodie Goodacre, updated more than 1 year ago
Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre about 7 years ago
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A-Levels Geography (World at risk) Mind Map on Arctic - Climate Change, created by Jodie Goodacre on 05/04/2013.
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Arctic - Climate Change
1 Lies within the Arctic circle
2 66.5 degree line of latitude
3 Consists of the ice sheet surrounding the North Pole
4 Eight countries - Canada, USA, Russia, Greenland, Iceland, Sweden, Finland and Norway
5 14.5 million sq km in land mass
6 It is mostly covered by pack-ice averaging 2-3 meters thick
7 January temperatures average -35 degrees and in July -1.5 degrees
8 Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else of earth
9 Is a barometer for change
10 Over the past few decades, the Arctic has warmed at about twice the rate of the rest of the globe
11 The IPCC states that over the last 30 years the average sea ice extent in the Arctic has decreased by 8%
12 The Greenland ice sheet is the largest body of freshwater ice in the Northern hemisphere
13 Some models suggest that the Arctic may be ice free in the summer in 10 to 50 years
14 Increased absorption of heat from the sun into the ocean (lowered albedo) is a major contributor to sea ice reduction
15 The breaking of the ice much earlier in the season makes it difficult to hunt
16 Arctic soils contain a lot of carbon in the form of partially decomposed organic matter
17 As permafrost thaws methane and carbon dioxide are released
18 Climate change is already destabilizing other systems in Greenland, including mountain glaciers, the distribution of permafrost and vegetation
19 The thermohaline circulation links the major oceans and it plays an important role in the transference of heat from the equator to the poles
19.1 It is caused by the different density of sea water caused by temperature and salinity
19.2 If the water doesn't cool enough it won't sink and then the circulation will break down with possibly catastrophic effects
19.3 The melting caps will cause more fresh water as a result in reduced salinity which could cause cooling in the North-West of Europe
20 About half of the analysed models suggest near-complete to complete ice loss in September by 2100
21 Climate warming and insect infestations make forests more susceptible to forest fires
21.1 A fire in 1996 burned 37,000 acres of forest
21.1.1 This caused $80 million in direct losses, 450 structures destroyed including 200 homes
21.2 As many as 200,000 Alaskan residents may now be at risk from fires
22 NASA reported ice sheets 12 times the size of the UK were lost by 2012
23 Vegetation shifts
24 Tree line moves further North
25 Vegetation shift may weaken food webs
26 Warmer growing season will benefit the Arctic agriculture consequently creating more carbon sinks
27 Up to 40% of permafrost is expected to thaw
28 Thawing permafrost may damage houses, roads, airports and pipelines
29 Thawing permafrost may cause land instability and landslides
30 Local coastal losses to erosion of up to 100ft in some places have been recorded
31 Increased UV radiation will reach the Earth's surface as snow and ice cover is lost
32 Many freshwater eco-systems are highly sensitive to UV radiation, which destroys Phytoplankton at the base of the marine ecosystem
33 Melting glaciers and ice sheets leads to a reduction in the albedo effect causing further warming
34 There will be a spread in certain species such as the spruce bark beetle in Alaska
35 Eustatic rise in sea level
36 Loss of hunting culture and decline of food for indigenous people such as Inuit's
37 90% of Greenland's population are Inuit's
38 Need for herd animals such as reindeer to change their migration routes
39 A decline in Northern freshwater fisheries will result, but enhanced marine fisheries will evolve
40 Transport opportunities will arise
41 Increased access for marine shipping
42 Arctic will become vulnerable to exploitation for oil, gas, fish and other resources
43 Over 3,000 households rely on hunting and fishing as a source of employment and food
44 Warmer water is reducing the quantity of marine plants
45 Thinning ice makes hunting far more dangerous for inuit's
46 Melting ice sheets will add to rising global sea levels
47 May be quicker to travel across land in the future
48 Travel tour operations from places like Canada will boost the local economy
49 Improved soil due to thawing permafrost
50 Opportunities for TNCs
51 Increased population possible
52 Tourism opportunities
53 Greater diversity in species
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