Issues Surrounding Classification + Diagnosis

Stephanie Bates
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A level Psychology A2 (Schizophrenia) Mind Map on Issues Surrounding Classification + Diagnosis, created by Stephanie Bates on 04/02/2014.

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Stephanie Bates
Created by Stephanie Bates over 5 years ago
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Issues Surrounding Classification + Diagnosis
1 RELIABILITY
1.1 The Reliability of the Major Classification Systems (ICD + DSM)
1.1.1 Clinicians - ICD/DSM - diagnose SZ reliably. Agree on diagnosis is follow guidlines
1.1.2 Evidence - low diag/ reliability - Copeland et al (1971) - Description patient, 134 US, 194 UK psychiatrists - 69% US = SZ, 2% UK. Cross Cultural variation
1.1.2.1 Still little ev/ DSM high reliability. Whalley (2011) - inter-rater reliability correlations in diagnosis - 0.11
1.1.3 Treatment: wrong diagnosis... Serious side effects drugs
1.1.4 Labelling: neg/ labels hard to remove. Carry stigma rest of lives
1.1.5 Improve Manuals: Many differences early versions. Current = more sim/ still diff/s (6/1 months)
1.2 Variation in Symptoms
1.2.1 Variability in symptoms required - different beh/s = same diagnosis
1.2.1.1 Klosterkotter et al (1994) - assessed 489 admissions, German psychiatric unit - pos/ neg/ symptoms = greater agreement bet/w/ clinicians (more reliable diag/). Pos/ = more reliable. Incorrect diag/ = wrong treatment
2 VALIDITY
2.1 Differentiating SZ
2.1.1 Probs/ - distinct from other MDs (Mood Ds, depression, developmental Ds, autism, drug-induced psychosis). Additional tests make distinction. (Drug induced/ - obs/ + toxicology tests)
2.1.2 Further complicated - depression = COMORBID (occurs w/ SZ)
2.1.3 Early diagnosis + prompt treatment = better long-term (Jackson + Birchwood, 1966). Blurred boundaries + comorbidity = early diag/ problematic - less likely recover
2.1.4 Treatment: Multiple disorders = strict consideration compatibility drugs. Comorbidity, diff/ predict outcome + response
2.2 Cultural Relativism
2.2.1 Newer versions - DSM+ICD - deal, cultural diff/s. Davison + Neale (1994) - Asian - emotional turmoil praised if no expression. Arabic - full expression, emotion public encouraged. Interpret emotional beh/ as symptoms.
2.2.2 Higher rates SZ - African-Caribbean patients UK+USA. Keith et al (1991) - 2.1% Afr/ SZs, 1% white. Doctors not Afr/ misinterpret symp/s. Unnecessary labelling + treatment