1.1 "It's awfully easy to be hard boiled about everything in the
daytime, but at night its another thing"
1.1.1 AO1: Demonstrates that although Jake puts on a hard
front and tries to act like comments don't hurt him, it
makes him self-conscious and upset.
1.1.2 AO2: Metaphor Jake is comparing himself to an egg. Jake is also
deliberately vague about his emotions.
1.1.3 AO3: The Color Purple "I'm pore, I'm black, I may be ugly a voice say [...] a
voice say to everything listening [...]but I'm here"
1.1.4 AO4: Links to multiple struggles in SFI such as gender, homosexuality and ethnicity.
1.2 "You cannot get away from yourself by moving from one place to another"
1.2.1 AO1: Jake tells Cohn this when Cohn proposes that they move to South Africa. Jake is explaining that Cohn's emotional void is psychological not geographic and no matter he goes he can't
change who he is or his past.
1.2.2 AO2: Definitive 'cannot', Jake is certain in his view. Direct personal pronoun 'You'
1.2.3 AO3: Eel Marsh House personifies alienation and isolation in The Woman in Black, Susan Hill and even after death Jennet still haunts the house
continuing this cycle of isolation.
1.2.4 AO4: Lost generation: A term coined by Hemingway but originated from Gertrude Stein who described this post-war generation as 'Lost' elaborating on this Stein commented 'Lost means not vanished, but disorientated,
wandering, directionless- a recognition that there was great confusion and aimlessness amongst the war's survivors in the early post-war years'
1.3 "He cared nothing for
boxing, in fact he
disliked it, but he learned
it painfully and
thoroughly to counteract
the feeling of inferiority
and shyness he had felt
on being treated as Jew
1.3.1 AO1: This passage presents many of the themes of the novel such
as: resentment, competitiveness and insecurity amongst men. It is
interesting to explore how fictional male characters demonstrate the
SFI in comparison to females.
1.3.2 AO2: Jake has a condescending tone here towards
Cohn, this later develops into hostility and antagonism as
Cohn is alienated from his associates. This hostility is
closely linked to Jake's own insecurities.
1.3.3 AO3: Top Girls, Marlene sleeps with multiple men yet
does not love them. She does this to feel better about
herself and feel superior over men as she concludes
they use see her as a 'high-flying lady'
1.3.4 AO4: The discrimination of Jews does not
just date back to the Nazi campaign. It has
arguably existed throughout history with
religious texts even connoting dislike
towards Jews. The term anti-Semitism was
first used in the late 19th century. The first
notable pogroms occurred in 1096
preceding the first crusade.
2 The Stranger, Albert Camus, 1946
2.1 "She said "If you go slowly, you risk getting sun
stroke. But if you go too fast, you work up a sweat
and then will catch a chill in the church" She was
right. There's no way out."
2.1.1 AO1: Mersault realises literally that the nurse means the heat is inescapable. However, by saying
"There's no way out" he realises that the nurse is figuratively suggesting that death and Mersault's
isolation are also inevitable.
2.1.2 AO2: Contrast between walking 'slowly' and 'too fast' emphasises Mersault's helplines (also see AO1) "no way out"- blunt and definitive
18.104.22.168 AO3: Forster could not come out publicly, as it would mean the end of his
career as there was "no way out" of homophobia in 20th century Britain.
22.214.171.124 AO4: Capital punishment abolished in UK in 1963, but still exists in USA.
2.2 "people never change their lives, that in any case one was good as another"
2.2.1 AO1: What does this say about attitudes to the SFI too?
2.2.2 AO2: 'never'- definitive, impactful
126.96.36.199 AO3: How much did attitudes in The Color Purple change?
188.8.131.52.1 AO4: Discrimination still exists
today, in Iran the law allows
girls to be wed at very young
ages, Russia imposed a law in
June 2013 reminiscent of
Section 28 and despite the
Olympics taking place there this
2.3 "I opened myself to the gentle indifference of the world"
2.3.1 AO1: Mersault speaks of the indifference the world has to his death sentence, but many people are indifferent to SFIs too.
2.3.2 AO2: Adjective 'gentle' suggests it is not malicious indifference, 'world' universal.
2.3.3 AO3:Literature aims to prevent indifference- how has the literature we have studied change your perception on certain issues? The Color
Purple: Elenor Jane is an example of a character indifferent to the possible frustration Sofia may feel.
2.3.4 AO4: The world was indifferent to what occurred to Jews in WW2 until the extent of the Holocaust was revealed. However, Holocaust denial still remains.
3 The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald, 1925.
3.1 "And I like large parties. They're so intimate. At small
parties there isn't any privacy"
3.1.1 AO1: Gatsby holds these parties but is an
outsider in his own home. He doesn't fit in
and initally no one knows who he is.
3.1.2 AO2: Paradox between a party
being "large" yet "intimate"
3.1.3 AO3: The Perks of Being A Wallflower. The title is
a metaphor for Charlie- he observes others, but
doesn't get involved "You see things. You keep
quiet about them. You understand (Patrick)
184.108.40.206 AO4: It could be said that women merely observed their country opposed to be active
participants in Britain until 1928 when all women over the age of 21 achieved the vote
(same could be said for other votes too).
3.2 "Daisy and Tom's crowd may be "rich together" but it sounds like an awful lot like loneliness to us"
3.2.1 AO1: The Great Gatsby focuses on class as well as alienation. As we found out through Gatsby as well as the
Buchanans' money does not mean happiness and shows the superficial nature of these characters.
220.127.116.11 AO2: Inverted commas shows Nick's scepticism and shows he is in a community 'us'. By saying "an awful lot like" he is not making
a definitive statement, however he still is clear demonstrating that he does not believe the façade.
3.2.2 AO3: "They ain't rich folks, rich folks don't try so hard" The Help, Kathryn Stockett.
3.2.3 AO4: The Great Gatsby is set during the 'roaring twenties' a time of booming capitalism and the Jazz Age (until 1929 with the Wall Street Crash).
3.3 "Well, she was less than an hour old and Tom
was God knows where. I woke up out of the
ether with an utterly abandoned feeling."
3.3.1 AO1: Daisy gives birth to their daughter alone, although men generally waited outside Tom was not there
either. Demonstrating his lack of commitment to the marriage and daughter and the bitter side of 'social
closure' (marrying into those of the same class as you merely for economic benefit)
3.3.2 AO2: The use of the phrase "God knows where" shows how little Daisy knows her husband, as she cannot even hazard a guess as to
where he could be. Her physical waking up may also be figurative- she is no longer naïve about her marriage.
3.3.3 AO3: The Color Purple: This is a significant event in Daisy's life,
like Celie's wedding day yet both are bitter and sad opposed to
happy like they should be and foreshadow future events.
3.3.4 AO4: Daisy is happy about giving birth to her daughter (which is quite unusual given the preference was generally boys) but rather than
hoping her child is intelligent or skilled she hopes her daughter will be a
"beautiful little fool" highlighting the importance romance and
appearance had to women in the 20s. Alternatively, it could be argued
that appearance was- and to a certain extent still is- considered very
important in girls
4 All God's Children Need Travelling Shoes, Maya Angelou, 1986
4.1 "The ache for home lives in all of us, the safe place
where we can go and not be questioned"
4.1.1 AO1: Angelou feels the only place where
she can go and not be discriminated against
is home showing the extent of her isolation.
18.104.22.168 AO2: Inclusive pronouns "us" "we"- highlights community.
Suggests we all face alienation?
22.214.171.124.1 AO3: I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings, Maya Angelou. Angelou's "ache for home" may be due to her lack of stability in childhood. As, she moved around from Stamps, Louisiana and St Louis.
126.96.36.199.1.1 AO4: Children were often displaced during wars, due to evacuation particularly WW2.
4.2 "We were black Africans in West Africa where for the first
time the color of our skin was accepted as correct and
4.2.1 AO1: Angelou contrasts alienation and belonging. Through this distinction she highlights the extent of her alienation in America.
4.2.2 AO2: The adjectives 'correct and normal'
highlight the racism Angelou has faced as she
it is connoted that the whites in America
viewed her as the opposite of this.
4.2.3 AO3: To Kill A Mockingbird, Harper Lee "whenever a white man does that to a black man, no
matter who he is, how rich he is or how fine a family he comes from, he is trash."
4.2.4 AO4: What Angelou doesn't mention in this quote is the racism faced by black Africans in South Africa. The Apartheid was enforced by the National Party through legislation from 1948 to 1994.
4.3 "Was the odor of old slavery so obvious that people were offended and lashed out at us automatically?"
4.3.1 AO1: Angelou questions the ignorance of racism and the mindlessness of it, by belittling those who discriminate.
4.3.2 AO2: Synesthesia- "odor", adverb "automatically" connotes mindless and the racist as being mechanical.
4.3.3 AO3: A Long Walk to Freedom, Nelson Mandela "No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, his background or his religion.
Hate must be learnt"
188.8.131.52 AO4: The thirteenth amendment abolished slavery in the USA in 1864.