-Measurement in Physics is based on measurement
of physical quantities.
-Certain physical quantities have been chosen
as base quantities (such as length, time, and mass); each has
been defined in terms of a standard and given a unit of measure
(such as meter, second, and kilogram).
-Other physical quantities
are defined in terms of the base quantities and their standards
and units.
1.1 LENGTH
Annotations:
The meter is defined as the distance traveled by light
during a precisely specified time interval
1.2 TIME
Annotations:
The second is defined in terms of the oscillations of light
emitted by an atomic (cesium-133) source. Accurate time signals
are sent worldwide by radio signals keyed to atomic clocks in standardizing
laboratories.
1.3 MASS
Annotations:
The kilogram is defined in terms of a platinum–
iridium standard mass kept near Paris. For measurements on an
atomic scale, the atomic mass unit, defined in terms of the atom
carbon-12, is usually used.
1.4 DENSITY
Annotations:
The density rho of a material is the mass per unit volume: rho = m / V
.
2 CHAPTER TWO: MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
2.1 POSITION
Annotations:
-The position x of a particle on an x axis locates the
particle with respect to the origin, or zero point, of the axis.
-The position is either positive or negative, according to which side of The origin the particle is on, or zero if the particle is at the origin.
-The positive direction on an axis is the direction of increasing positive numbers; the opposite direction is the negative direction on the axis.
2.2 DISPLACEMENT
Annotations:
The displacement x of a particle is the change
in its position:
DELTA X = X2 - X1
Displacement is a vector quantity. It is positive if the particle has
moved in the positive direction of the x axis and negative if the
particle has moved in the negative direction.
2.3 AVG
VELOCITY
Annotations:
When a particle has moved from position x1
to position x2 during a time interval t t2 t1, its average velocity
during that interval is
Vavg = DELTA X / DELTA t
-The algebraic sign of vavg indicates the direction of motion (vavg is a
vector quantity).
-Average velocity does not depend on the actual
distance a particle moves, but instead depends on its original and final positions.
-On a graph of x versus t, the average velocity for a time interval t is the slope of the straight line connecting the points on the curve
that represent the two ends of the interval.
2.4 SPEED
Annotations:
The average speed savg of a particle during a
time interval t depends on the total distance the particle moves in
that time interval:
Savg = total distance / DELTA t
2.5 INST
VELOCITY
Annotations:
The instantaneous velocity (or simply
velocity) v of a moving particle is:
V = (THE LIMIT AS t = 0) OF DELTA X / DELTA t
IS ALSO EQUAL TO
V = dx / dt
The instantaneous velocity
(at a particular time) may be found as the slope (at that particular
time) of the graph of x versus t. Speed is the magnitude of instantaneous
velocity.
2.6 AVG
ACCELERATION
Annotations:
Average acceleration is the ratio of a change in velocity DELTA v to the time interval DELTA t in which the change
occurs:
Aavg = delta x / delta t
2.7 Instantaneous Acceleration
Annotations:
a = dv / dt = d^2x / dt^2
2.7.1 On a graph of v versus
t, the acceleration a at
any time t is the slope
of the curve at the point
that represents t.
2.8 Constant
Acceleration
Annotations:
describe the motion of a particle with constant acceleration
These are not valid when the acceleration is not constant.
2.8.1 V = Vo +
at
2.8.2 X - Xo = Vot + (1/2)at^2
2.8.3 V^2 = V0^2 + 2a(X-Xo),
2.8.4 X - Xo = (1/2)(Vo -
V)t
2.8.5 X - Xo = vt -
(1/2)at^2
2.9 Free-Fall Acceleration
Annotations:
An important example of straightline
motion with constant acceleration is that of an object rising or
falling freely near Earth’s surface.The constant acceleration equations
describe this motion, but we make two changes in notation:
(1) we refer the motion to the vertical y axis with y vertically up;
(2) we replace a with g, where g is the magnitude of the free-fall
acceleration.
Near Earth’s surface, g = 9.8 m/s2 ( 32 ft/s2).
2.9.1 g = 9.8 m/s2
3 CHAPTER THREE: VECTORS
3.1 Scalars and
Vectors
3.1.1 Vectors have both magnitude and direction
3.2 Adding Vectors
Geometrically
3.3 Components of a Vector
3.3.1 ax = a cos THETA
3.3.2 ay = a sin
THETA
3.3.3 Magnitude of a vector
3.3.3.1 a = sqrt( ax^2 + ay^2)
3.3.4 Orientation of vector
3.3.4.1 tan THETA = ay /
ax
3.4 Product of a Scalar and a Vector
3.5 The Scalar
Product
3.6 The Vector
Product
3.7 Adding Vectors in Component Form
3.8 Unit-Vector Notation
4 CHAPTER FOUR: MOTION IN 2D & 3D
4.1 Position
Vector
4.2 Displacement
4.3 Avg Velocity and
Inst Velocity
4.4 Avg Velocity
and Inst
Velocity
4.5 Projectile
Motion
4.6 Uniform Circular
Motion
4.7 Relative
Motion
5 CHAPTER FIVE: FORCE & MOTION I
5.1 Force
5.2 Newton’s First Law
5.3 Mass
5.3.1 Fg = weight = mg
5.4 Newtonian Mechanics
5.4.1 Inertial Reference Frames
5.5 Newton’s Second Law
5.6 Some Particular Forces
5.7 Newton’s Third Law
6 CHAPTER SIX: FORCE & MOTION II
6.1 Friction
6.2 Drag Force
6.3 Terminal Speed
6.4 Uniform Circular Motion
7 CHAPTER SEVEN: KINETIC ENERGY & WORK
7.1 Kinetic Energy
7.2 Work
7.2.1 Work Done by a Constant Force
7.3 Work and Kinetic Energy
7.4 Work Done by the Gravitational Force
7.5 Work Done in Lifting and Lowering an Object
7.6 Spring Force
7.6.1 Work Done by a Spring Force
7.7 Work Done by a Variable Force
7.8 Power
8 CHAPTER EIGHT: POTENTIAL ENERGY &
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
8.1 Conservative
Forces
8.2 Potential
Energy
8.3 Elastic Potential
Energy
8.4 Mechanical
Energy
8.5 Potential Energy
Curves
8.6 Gravitational Potential
Energy
8.7 Work Done on a System by an External Force
8.8 Conservation of
Energy
8.9 Power
9 CHAPTER NINE: CENTER OF
MASS & LINEAR MOMENTUM
9.1 Center of Mass
9.2 Newton’s Second Law
for a System of Particles
9.3 Linear Momentum and
Newton’s Second Law
9.4 Collision and Impulse
9.5 Variable-Mass Systems
9.6 Conservation of
Linear Momentum
9.7 Inelastic Collision in
One Dimension
9.8 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
9.9 Collisions in Two Dimensions
10 CHAPTER TEN: ROTATION
10.1 Angular Position
10.2 Angular Displacement
10.3 Angular Velocity and Speed
10.4 Angular Acceleration
10.5 The Kinematic
Equations for
Constant Angular
Acceleration
10.6 Linear and Angular Variables Related
10.7 Rotational Kinetic Energy
and Rotational Inertia
10.8 The Parallel-Axis Theorem
10.9 Torque
10.10 Newton’s Second
Law in Angular Form
10.11 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy
11 CHAPTER ELEVEN: ROLLING, TORQUE,
AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM