Cytogenetics

clairegillian95
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

First year Genetics & Society (Cytogenetics) Mind Map on Cytogenetics, created by clairegillian95 on 04/03/2014.

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clairegillian95
Created by clairegillian95 over 5 years ago
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Cytogenetics
1 Chromosome number changes
1.1 Polyploidy
1.1.1 More than 2 sets of chromosomes
1.1.2 Autopolyploids: the chromosome sets are all identical; all chromosomes are derived from the same species
1.1.3 Many polyploids are sterile, due to problems with pairing and separation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis
1.1.4 Allopolyploids: result of crosses between 2 or more (usually related) species
1.1.5 Tissue specific polyploidy
1.1.5.1 Endomitosis: sister chromatids separate but no cytokinesis occurs; results in tetraploid cells- liver and kidney cells
1.2 Aneuploidy
1.2.1 Diploid genome which lacks a chromosome or has an extra chromosome
1.2.2 Can be caused by meiotic nondisjunction
2 Autosomal Trisomies
3 Chromosome Structural Changes
3.1 Chromosome Identification: size, centromere position, banding patterns produced by different strains
3.2 Deletions: Two breaks in a chromosome. A small piece of chromosome is lost. The larger pieces rejoin
3.2.1 Effects depend on size of deletion
3.2.2 Intragenic deletions: deletions within a gene typically inactivate the gene - NULL mutation
3.2.3 Multigenic deletions: involve deletions of 2 to thousands of genes - produce Deletion Syndromes
3.3 Duplications: Extra copy of gene or chromosomal region; duplicate regions can be located adjacent to each other, or one can be located in the normal location and the other in a novel location
3.3.1 Extra regions can undergo gene mutation - opportunity for divergence in function
3.4 Inversions
3.5 Translocations
3.5.1 Reciprocal Translocations
3.5.2 Robertsonian Translocations
3.5.3 Unidirectional Translocations
3.5.4 Some translocations are associated with cancer

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