Factors affecting the shape of a hydrograph

RachBenson
Mind Map by RachBenson, updated more than 1 year ago
RachBenson
Created by RachBenson about 6 years ago
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A Levels Geography Mind Map on Factors affecting the shape of a hydrograph, created by RachBenson on 04/04/2014.
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Factors affecting the shape of a hydrograph
1 Antecedent rainfall
1.1 Heavy rain falling on a soil which is saturated from a previous period of wet weather
1.1.1 Produces steep rising limb
2 Impermeable rock types
2.1 such as granite & clay - tend to have higher drainage densities. The higher the density the faster the water reaches the main river channel, causing rapid increases in discharge.
3 Size of drainage basin
3.1 A small drainage basin tends to respond more rapidly to a storm than a larger one, so the lag time is shorter.
4 Vegetation
4.1 Varies with season. In summer there are more leaves on deciduous trees, so interception is higher and peak discharge lower. Plantations of coniferous have a less variable effect.
5 Urbanisation
5.1 Human impact. Reduces lag time and increases peak discharge. Impermeable surfaces (concrete/tarmac)
5.1.1 Drains/sewers
5.1.1.1 Transport water rapidly to river channels, reducing the lag time
5.1.2 Straightening of river channels and lining of concrete - leads to faster delivery of water downstream of the urban area and increases the risk of flooding in downstream areas.
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