Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels Geography (Going Global) Mind Map on Roots, created by Jodie Goodacre on 05/05/2013.

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Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre over 6 years ago
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Roots
1 Family size
1.1 The total population of the UK rose from around 38 million in 1901 to 61 million in 2007
1.2 Individual household sizes have fallen
1.3 In the early 1900s, four or five children might live under the same roof with their parents, today it is likely to be just one or two
1.4 Many households consist of just one or people
1.5 Increased life expectancy has led to grandparents living longer, which increases the size of extended family
2 Population structure
2.1 The UK as a whole has developed a top-heavy population structure
2.2 Back in 1931, just 7% of the population were aged 65, while 24% were under 16
2.3 Today, the figures are 16% of over 65s and 19% of under 25s
2.4 Life expectancy has increased over time
2.5 In 1901 the average age of death was 50 for men and 57 for women
2.6 By 2007, the average age of death was 77 for men and 82 for women
2.7 Before the 1970s
2.7.1 Population was still growing due to natural increase
2.7.2 The death rate had been falling since the 1800s
2.7.2.1 The total population grew from 38 million to 55 million between 1901 and 1971
2.7.3 Death rate came to its current low level by mid-century
2.7.4 It took until the 1970s, and the end of the postwar baby boom, for declining birth rate to reach the same low level as death rate
2.8 Since the 1970s
2.8.1 Total population has increased more slowly
2.8.2 Growth has mostly been due to immigration
2.8.3 Both death rate and birth rate have remained at a low and fairly constant level
2.8.4 Family sizes are small while life expectancy is increasing
2.8.5 The total population grew from 55 million to 61 million between 1971 and 2007
3 Migration
3.1 Over time the mobility of the UK population has increased
3.2 One of the most important recent migrations has been movement away from manufacturing and mining towns and towards settlements with service-sector jobs
3.3 A general southeast drift of the UK population has resulted, with 26% now living in London and the southeast
3.4 Counter-urbanisation - significant numbers of people have left towns and cities to live in surrounding rural areas
3.5 Retired people moving to seaside settlements
3.6 Young adults leaving home and relocating to university towns
3.7 Large amounts of international migration took place
4 Employment
4.1 Employment structures for many settlements have changed beyond recognition in recent decades
4.2 The decline of traditional manufacturing as well as job losses in farming and mine closures
4.3 Movement away from the Primary and Secondary sectors to the Tertiary and Quaternary sectors
5 Social status and aspirations
5.1 At the start of the 20th century, most people in the UK were relatively poor and would have described themselves as 'working class'
5.2 During the 20th century, average wages rose and more people entered higher education before graduating to non-manual work
5.3 As a result of social mobility, more and more people have come to define themselves as 'middle class'
6 Ethnicity
6.1 The ethnic mix of people living in the UK has changed significantly over time
6.2 With minority groups now accounting for 8% overal
6.3 From 1950s onwards, large scale migration took place from the UKs former colonies of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
6.4 Significant numbers of Australians and white South Africans also relocated in the UK
6.5 Since the Maastricht treaty of 1993 many European migrants have arrived
6.6 London is now home to 100,000 French nationals
6.7 Segregating results in some districts having noticeably different ethnic profiles
6.8 Around 60% of people living in the London Borough of Newham are non-white
7 The Grey Challange
7.1 The proportion of the UKs population aged over 65 is growing
7.2 Ageing population
7.3 Greying of the British society
7.4 The country faces a growing burden of dependency
7.5 Dependency ratio = (Population under 16) + (Population over 65) / (Population 15-64) X 100
7.6 The dependency ratio is rising in the UK as the number of retired people increased
7.7 Currently, 60% of Britons work and pay the state pensions of the 21% who are retired
7.8 By 2030,56% of Britons will be working to support the 27% who are retired
7.9 By 2026, when the 1960s baby boom generation reaches retirement age, this will amount to about £30 billion per year
7.10 Local authorities with an unusually high proportion of elderly people must fund greater numbers of care homes and services which results in higher council taxes for working people
7.11 Many older people retire to coastal regions
7.12 Properties remain occupied by elderly owners for much longer as life expectancy rises
7.13 This can result in housing shortages, driving up prices for younger people
7.14 Between 1995 and 2005, average house prices in some UK seaside towns trebled, taking them well beyond the reach of many first-time buyers
7.15 May place emotional burden on younger and middle-aged people who act as carers for older relatives
7.16 Voluntary charitable work
7.17 Spending the grey pound
7.18 Some many continue to work
7.19 Bringing wisdom and experience to politics

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