On The Move

Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels Geography (Going Global) Mind Map on On The Move, created by Jodie Goodacre on 05/05/2013.

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Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre over 6 years ago
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On The Move
1 Displaced persons
1.1 Refugees/ Asylum seekers
1.1.1 Current Trends: Asylum Seekers
1.1.1.1 If the claim for asylum is granted, the refugee is normally allowed to stay
1.1.1.2 If the claim is turned down, the immigrant may be deported
1.1.1.3 Concern has been expressed about the numbers seeking asylum in the EU, amid fears that many are actually economic migrants
1.1.1.4 Asylum claims peaked in the early 1900s, and again in 2001-02, but have since fallen across Europe
1.1.1.5 The majority of asylum seekers are from the middle and near east (Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan)
1.2 Forced to move by war, famine, disaster or fear or persecution
1.3 Temporary stay
2 Voluntary migrants
2.1 Permanent move for work or quality of life reasons
2.2 Temporary move for work reasons
2.3 May stay for weeks or years
3 Illegal migrants
3.1 Voluntary individual move for work
3.2 Organised move as part of criminal activity
3.3 Living and working until discovered
3.4 Current Trends: Illegal Migrants
3.4.1 Illegal immigration to Europe seems to be on the rise
3.4.2 Accurate data is hard to obtain
3.4.3 Some estimates suggest 4-8 million illegal African migrants may be in the EU
3.4.4 Total illegal immigration in the UK is estimated at 0.5 million
3.4.5 Huge areas of Africa have been wracked by conflict, civil unrest, famine and poverty so the push factors are strong
3.4.6 Many Africans enter the EU by boat through the Spanish Canary Islands, Malta and Italy
3.4.7 Migrants pay traffickers 1000 - 4000 euros each
3.4.8 The Sahara desert land route is dangerous and there are many heat-related deaths, and killings by bandits
3.4.9 Fishing boats used on the sea routes can be lethal
3.4.10 A common route, from Senegal to the Canaries, can take 8-10 days in potentially rough seas, in overcrowded boats
3.4.11 Being caught often leads to deportation
4 Migration theory
4.1 Lee's push-pull migration model
4.2 1966
4.3 Lee explained the factors causing migration in terms of the positive and negative characteristics of origin and destination areas
4.4 Migrants have to perceive some benefit in moving from one place to another
4.5 They may also take into account obstacles they might encounter including family pressures, government policy, cost of travel and language barriers
4.6 Intervening opportunities such as someone moving from France to Ireland but finding employment in England
5 Globalisation has made population movements easier than ever
6 By 2005, 190 million people worldwide were living outside their country of birth - 3% of the population
7 In the UK successive waves of immigration since the Second World War have transformed the cultural landscape
8 By 2007, over 8% of the UK population was foreign born - more than double the global average
9 The UK relied on its colonies and dominions (Canada, Australia and New Zealand) during the Second World War. Small numbers of colonial soldiers, such as those from the Caribbean, stayed on in the UK after the war.
9.1 They were also joined by economic migrants from Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and other island colonies as part of a deliberate policy to fill labour shortages in sectors such as the railways, buses and the NHS
9.1.1 This was encouraged by the 1948 British Nationality Act, which gave UK citizenship to people from the Commonwealth.
9.1.1.1 Migration from Commonwealth countries was restricted by the 1962 Commonwealth immigrants act
9.1.1.2 By 1972 it had been tightened further to allow only those with work permits or people with grandparents and parents born in the UK to settle here
10 Location(s) within the UK
10.1 Chinese: 47% live in London and the Southeast. Many set up businesses in areas without competition and so became more geographically widespread than other groups.
10.1.1 Average age is 27
10.2 Black Caribbean: 61% live in London, with a further 17% in the west midlands. London was often the place of arrival in the 1950s, and an area with acute labour shortages
10.2.1 Three distinct age peaks at 60, 40 and 20
10.3 Black African: 78% live in London. A diverse range of communities from different African nations has developed within the capital
10.3.1 Average age is 27, with 68% of working age
10.4 Indian: Large concentrations in the west and east midlands, a lower percentage in London than most other groups. Geography reflects the availability of work in the 1960s.
10.4.1 Close to 50% were born in the UK. The majority are within the 20-50 age bracket
10.5 Pakistani: London has the largest concentration, with the west midlands, Yorkshire and the northwest also high. Geography reflects the availability of work in the 1960s
10.5.1 55% were born in the UK; 35% are under 16 A younger profile than the Indian group
10.6 Bangladeshi: Over 75% live in London. Much of the work for Bangladeshis initially came from the garment industry in east London.
10.6.1 Just over half were born in the UK; the average age is 21, one of the youngest of all ethnic groups
11 EU open borders
11.1 Most national border controls within the EU were removed in 1995 when the Schengen Agreement was implemented
11.1.1 This enables easier movement of people and goods within the EU
11.1.2 Passports do not usually have to be shown at borders
11.1.3 The UK did not sign, preferring to keep its border controls
11.1.4 The new EU members in Eastern Europe implemented this agreement in 2007--8
11.2 Schengen agreement bring benefits, as EU labour can move to where there is demand in one EU country
11.3 The EU has set up Frontex, an external border control agency, to prevent illegal immigrants seeping in through borders with non-EU members
12 The large number of Polish immigrants are part of the UK Worker Registration Scheme for EU workers, and have come seeking work as plumbers, builders, hotel staff or in farming and food processing
13 Some sources and hosts almost balance, which is probably due to professionals moving to the UK for several years, then returning home
14 UK Net migration is down a third this year
15 UK policy on immigration
15.1 A tough policy on asylum seekers, accepting only genuine applicants. Numbers are steadily falling
15.2 A points-based system which favours those with skills, education and earning potential
15.2.1 Tier 1: Highly skilled individuals
15.2.2 Tier 2: Skilled workers with a job offer to fill gaps in the UK labour force
15.2.3 Tier 3: Limited numbers of low-skilled workers need to fill specific temporary labour shortages
15.2.4 Tier 4: Students
15.2.5 Tier 5: Youth mobility and temporary workers allowed to work in the UK for a limited period of time
15.3 The Worker Registration Scheme (WRS), which allows migrants from some Eastern European EU states to move to the UK to fill low-skill, low-wage employment gaps
15.4 Permanent residence is granted only when migrants have been resident in the UK for some years, and migrants who wish to become citizens of the UK must pass a 'Life in the UK' test
15.5 UK business visas favour those with money and ideas and encourage investment in the UK

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