World Cities

Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by Jodie Goodacre, updated more than 1 year ago
Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre about 7 years ago
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A-Levels Geography (Going Global) Mind Map on World Cities, created by Jodie Goodacre on 05/06/2013.
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World Cities
1 Internal growth results from city dwellers having high birth rates
2 Rural- Urban migration - Most of those who move from the countryside to cities are young, fertile people who therefore cause a high birth rate within cities
3 Internal growth accounts for 60% of urban population growth and migration around 30%
4 The poorest areas of the world have the fastest urban growth rates
5 Some cities can grow at rates of 6-8% per year, with much of the growth consisting of slums
6 The population living in developing world slums is likely to reach 1.3-1.4 billion by 2020
7 Many rural-urban migrants are well informed about the city to which they are migrating
8 Extended family of friends may have organised jobs for the migrants
9 The majority who move are young and relatively well skilled
10 Who are the rural-urban migrants - Mexico city
10.1 A study of migrants to Mexico city between 1995 and 2000, found that in-migrants numbered 521,000.
10.2 Out-migration slightly exceeded this, so the city's population growth of 1.4% per year was a result of internal growth
10.3 The majority of rural-urban migrants come from poor farming states close to and south of Mexico City
10.4 Many of these are young women (average age 22), escaping rural poverty and seeking low-skill domestic work in Mexico City
10.5 These migrants are better educated than the population in general, having had 8-9 years in school compared to the national average of 7.6 years
10.6 There is large out-migration from Mexico city, but this is migration to the sprawling fringes of the city, in other states, so actually represents urbanisation
11 Many of Asia's cities are centres of wealth, many of Africa's are desperately poor
12 Some migrants may be young, skilled and entrepreneurial, others may be older, poorer and perhaps forced to migrate
13 Urban Process
13.1 Urban growth refers to the growth in the physical size of a city
13.2 Urban sprawl occurs when urban areas grow outwards, usually in an uncontrolled way, on to surrounding rural land
13.3 In the developing world this often results from illegal slum growth
13.4 In developing cities, suburbanisation occurs when the wealthy choose t live on the city edge to escape poverty, crime, congestion and pollution of the city centre
13.5 A modern trend is for new suburbs to be gated, with walls, gates and security to keep non-residents out. This is common in Latin America and South African cities
13.6 Counter-urbanisation refers to the movement of people out of cities and into rural areas
13.7 Counter-urbanisation is mainly a developed world process, but the very rich in the developing world may also counter-urbanise
13.8 Reurbanisation may follow attempts to regenerate areas of cities that have declined
13.9 Reurbanisation is a developed world trend beginning to occur in Asian cities
14 Some cities may be growing largely because of migration, others by internal growth
15 Many Asian cities are beginning to plan their growth, whereas in Africa planning is prevented by poverty and lack of planers
16 The rate of population growth varies from around 2-4% per year for Latin American cities, to 4-8% for some African and Asian cities
17 Different urban processes are occurring in different cities
18 Chongqing
18.1 China's fourth largest minicipality
18.2 Up stream of the Three Gorges dam
18.3 Key inland port on the Yangtze River
18.4 Many of China's 8.5 million annual rural-urban migrants head to cities like Chonqing
18.5 Chongqing city contains 4.1 million people, but the wider municipality (urban area) housed 31.5 million in 2005
18.6 Over 1,300 rural-urban migrants arrive every day.
18.7 The urban economy grows by £7 million per day
18.8 Total population is growing by around 500,000 per year
18.9 Around 130,000 m sq. of new buildings are constructed daily
18.10 Average income rose by 66% between 2000 and 2005, to to £750 per year, almost three times the rural average
19 Urbanisation stages
19.1 Immature
19.1.1 Very rapid growth - 3% per year
19.1.2 Largely migration growth
19.1.3 Informal economy = 60%
19.1.4 Small-scale manufacturing, street trading and urban farming
19.1.5 Urbanisation
19.1.6 Little planning
19.1.7 Uncontrolled urban sprawl
19.1.8 Squatter settlements dominate
19.1.9 Basic needs barely met
19.1.10 60%+ live in slums
19.1.11 Environmental problems
19.1.12 Kabul
19.1.13 Lagos
19.1.14 Kinshasa
19.2 Consolidating
19.2.1 Rapid growth - 1-3% per year
19.2.2 Balance of migration and internal growth
19.2.3 Manufacturing is important
19.2.4 Some service industries
19.2.5 Informal economy = 50%
19.2.6 Urbanisation and Suburbanisation
19.2.7 Attempts at planning
19.2.8 Focused on waste, congestion and water supply
19.2.9 Upgrading of slums and some social housing
19.2.10 Most basic needs met
19.2.11 Cairo
19.2.12 Mumbai
19.2.13 Jakarta
19.2.14 Chonqing
19.3 Maturing
19.3.1 Slow growth - Under 2% per year
19.3.2 Largely internal growth
19.3.3 Service industry dominates with some manufacturing
19.3.4 Informal economy under 40%
19.3.5 Suburbanisation
19.3.6 Effective attempts at housing, transport and land use planning
19.3.7 Environmental problems being tackled
19.3.8 Quality of life satisfactory for many
19.3.9 Gated communities in suburbs
19.3.10 Mexico City
19.3.11 Sao Paulo
19.3.12 Beijing
19.4 Established
19.4.1 Very slow growth - Under 1% per yer
19.4.2 Some are stable
19.4.3 Dominated by professional, services and retail
19.4.4 Formal economy
19.4.5 Counter-urbanisation and reurbanisation
19.4.6 Large scale suburbanisation with counter-urbanisation
19.4.7 Since 1980, most have regenerated inner-city and former industrial area
19.4.8 Quality of life is high for most
19.4.9 Environmental quality is good
19.4.10 London
19.4.11 San Francisco
19.4.12 Paris
19.4.13 Birmingham
20 Megacities are cities with population of 10 million +
21 World cities are city's with major economic and political power
21.1 Political influence, e.g. New York is home to the United nations
21.2 Transport and communications, e.g. Heathrow in London has more international passengers than any other airport
21.3 Economic power, e.g. The presence of stock exchanges and the headquarters of major TNCs
22 Growing cities in poorer countries can be unsustainable for several reasons:
22.1 Lack of adequate housing - due to rapid growth, poverty and lack of resources
22.2 Poor health - linked to lack of water, sanitation and medical facilities
22.3 Weak urban governance - a lack of will, combined with a lack of resources, makes change difficult
22.4 Low environmental quality - resulting from poor transport infrastructure, lack of waste systems and industrial pollution
22.5 Poverty - resulting from low wages and underemployment
23 Improving slum housing
23.1 Poor, unhealthy slum dwellers have a low capacity for work, and huge slum areas deter inward investment.
23.2 Improving slums is an important step in making cities more socially and environmentally sustainable
23.3 Eviction - The UN estimates that 6.7 million people were evicted from slums in 2000-02
23.4 Security of tenure - The UN suggests that 30-50% of people in developing cities have no legal right to occupy the land they inhabit. Tenure grants them that right
23.5 Site and service - It is possible to set out roads, sewers and water connections before slums develop. Low-income people move into these areas and construct their homes on prepared sites
23.6 Consolidation - Residents gradually improve their homes
23.7 Aided self help - Local councils and NGOs provide building materials and training to help communities improve conditions
23.8 Social housing - new homes are built and slums demolished
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