1.1 The poem is laid out in four regular six-line
stanzas, with each stanza ending in a
1.2 This structure is interesting since its very
rigid(刻板的) order contrasts with the
chaotic(混乱), disturbing images described in
2 Stanza one
2.1 “spools of suffering”,
2.1.1 Photographer attempts to restore the order to the
chaotic images contained within them
2.1.2 He handles the pictures with the same respect
with which a priest would prepare for
communion and there is a definite
spirituality(灵性) to this process.
2.1.3 here it makes us think of graves, or bodies waiting to be
2.2 This religious imagery is effective in not
only conveying the dedication(奉献) the
photographer feels towards his
occupation(职业) but also because, like a
priest, he too is often exposed to death
2.3 “red light”
2.3.1 connotations of the light that burns continuously in
Catholic churches to symbolise the presence of Christ
and also of blood– a sight that the photographer must
be all too familiar with.
2.3.2 the darkroom is a place of sanctuary(圣所) for the
photographer, just as a religious or spiritual person may
look for the same kind of solace(安慰) in a church had
they been confronted with the same horrors that the
photographer must endure(忍受).
2.4 "a priest preparing to intone a Mass"
2.4.1 instead of preparing for mass, the photographer is
developing images of war– evidence of inhuman
behaviour which only serves to contradict(反驳) the
fundamental(基本) teachings of the Church.
2.5 "Belfast. Beirut. Phnom Penh"
2.5.1 list of the places where he has recorded images of
conflict. Duffy's deliberate use of full stops here helps
to “fix” the images – the final part of the printing
process - into the mind of the reader.
2.5.2 Duffy makes it clear that these wars are
happening across the world, from Europe
(Belfast), to the Middle East (Beirut) to Asia
2.6 "all flesh is grass"
2.6.1 the quotation comes from the New Testament and
reinforces the religious imagery as well as
emphasising the fragility of life