Restless Earth

09ext
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map of Edexcel Physical Geography Topic 1

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09ext
Created by 09ext over 5 years ago
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Restless Earth
1 Structure of the Earth
1.1 Crust- A very thin layer, divided into plates
1.2 Upper Mantle- Solid because it's closer to the surface of the Earth it's cooler
1.3 Lithosphere is Mantle and Crust. Below the Lithosphere is very viscous
1.4 Asthenosphere is Upper Mantle
1.5 Core is Iron and Nickel. Generates magnetic field
1.6 Inner core is solid because of pressure
1.7 Oceanic more dense, thicker with Basaltic rocks.
1.8 Continental less dense, thinner with Continental rocks
2 Plates
2.1 Permian (Pangea) 225 million years ago
2.2 Triassic (Laurasia, Gondwanaland) 200 million years ago
2.3 Laurasia Continents Asia, North America, Europe
2.4 Constructive in seas
2.5 Destructive on land
2.6 Conservative are random
2.7 Constructive (Divergent)- Plates pull apart
2.8 Destructive (Convergent)- Plates push together and one subducts
2.9 Collision- Plates push towards each other
2.10 Conservative- Plates slide past each other
3 Volcanoes
3.1 Landform erupting lava through a fissure in crust
3.2 Measured on Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)
3.3 Andesitic Magma- Lower temp, high number dissolved gases, high silica content
3.4 Basaltic Magma- Higher temp, low dissolved gases, low silica
3.5 High viscosity- Explosive!
3.6 Shield Volcano- Found at conservative, basaltic lava, not explosive
3.7 Strato Volcano- Found at destructive, andesitic lava, explosive!
3.8 Prediction- Tilt meters, monitoring gases
3.9 Planning (Evacuation, drills, safe zones)
3.10 Education (warning signs, hazards, evacuation routes)
4 Earthquakes
4.1 Shaking of Earth's crust, due to movement of Earth's plates
4.2 Plates get stuck, pressure build up. When released an earthquake occurs
4.3 Releases seismic waves
4.4 Focus is inside the crust where pressure is released. Epicentre is point on Earth's surface above the focus
4.5 LEDC protection- Steel rod foundations, cross braced wood or bamboo frames, concrete rings tie walls to foundation
4.6 MEDC protection- Cross bracing, tuned mass damper, base isolators
5 Tsunamis
5.1 Triggered by earthquake in the sea, displaces water
5.2 MEDCs- Warning systems
5.3 Reach heights of 30m at shore!
5.4 At Sea- Small Shore- Big