1.1.1 An action itself is not right/wrong, the positive value
attributed to that action. The person is judged, not
the action. You are what you repeatedly do. The
do-er was more important than the action being
done. Virtues can only exist in a social or political
setting- ethics is a branch of politics.
184.108.40.206 Happiness is the end point only, and nver the starting point of a chain of consequences that lead to a bigger goal.
220.127.116.11 VE is holistic, it treats the person and the action as part of the
same whole. Morality is not just a series of different dilemas with
no unity to them.
1.1.2 "Good itself will be no more good by being
eternal," (a white thing is no more white if it last a
long time than if it lasts a day)
1.2 To be a human is to be
rational.Good reasoning leads to
virtues and human flourishment
1.2.1 Eudaimonia involves considering your happiness, and the happiness of others.
1.3 Virtues are moral and intellectual characteristics that come from habit and
education. They should be shiven for, and developed through life, bettering
1.3.1 Mel Thompson: 'virtues are not a simple state in which one finds themselves, it is a
disposition to act in a certain way'
1.4 The Golden Mean
1.4.1 The Vice of Exces---------- Virtue---------The Vice of deficiency
1.4.2 the Golden mean is individual to us, and as rational beings it is up to us to find our own personal means in every situation.
18.104.22.168 To discover our own personal means we need to apply PHRONESIS; practical wisdom. It is acquired as we
grow and become independent. We do not only establish our own personal virtue but, we ballance self
interest and the interest of others. Phronesis guides you to becoming viruous and is needed for other virtues
to be developed, other virtues then direct other virtues and so on, through the stages of phronesis
22.214.171.124.1 Phronesis- Developing- VIRTUE- informs and
directs other development- Virtue... etc... until
1.4.3 Moral Virtues and Intellectual Virtues
126.96.36.199 Moral virtues are developed by habit, eg, courage, honesty
188.8.131.52 Intellectual virtues are developed by training and education. eg, prudence, wisdom, technical skills.
2.1 Since the enlightenment, moral Philosohers (Kant, Hume, Kierkegaard)
have fallen into the trap of trying to make morality action-based rather than
agent-based. Since this, we have lost sight of what moral wisdom actually
2.1.1 Thus, we are at crossroads, faced with the decision for following the
individualist- Nietzsche, or the philosopher that understands the importance
of the relationship between community and individual identity, Aristotle.
184.108.40.206 Without the practise of virtues, communities collapse. A moral society is one in
which the indivuals share commonly held virtues and aspire to meet them. Overtime,
these virtues clarify themselves, and improve. the virues must be practical, realistic,
and acheiveable. (virtues both sustain and are sustained by communal living.
220.127.116.11.1 VE is focussed on acheiveable goals, not reliant upon
crystal-ball consequentialist approaches, or impossible to keep
18.104.22.168.1.1 Allows for personal relationships and love.
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 STOCKER'S criticism of Kant, not only acting out of duty toards your loved ones,
you are not visiting them in hospital because you have to but because you want
126.96.36.199.2 VE strives for a collective good, not just an individual good. Focussed on building up the community
3 Telos- purpose
4 Eudaimonia- Happiness, the senses of
fulfilling one's purpose, well-being.
5 Christianity and Virtue Ethics
5.1 St Ambrose used Cicero's four cardinal virtues and added three theological virtues