industrial chemical synthesis C6 OCR

sara142
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Singapore-Cambridge GCE Advanced Level(A- Level) Chemistry Mind Map on industrial chemical synthesis C6 OCR, created by sara142 on 04/14/2014.

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sara142
Created by sara142 over 5 years ago
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industrial chemical synthesis C6 OCR
1 we depend daily on chemicals
2 chemical synthesis
2.1 is the process by which raw materials are made into useful products.
2.1.1 such as
2.1.1.1 food additives
2.1.1.1.1 colouring
2.1.1.1.2 flavouring
2.1.1.1.3 perservatives
2.1.1.2 Cleaning and decorating products
2.1.1.2.1 paints
2.1.1.2.2 dyes
2.1.1.2.3 pigments
2.1.1.2.4 bleach
2.1.1.2.5 oven clean
2.1.1.2.6 washing-up liqued
2.1.1.3 drugs - pharmaceutical
2.1.1.3.1 industry is huge
2.1.2 all these chemical industries are passed through many processes of testing and development
2.1.2.1 Also, figuring out how to make chemicals in a way that produce the highest yield
2.1.2.1.1 they do this by controlling the rate of reaction
2.1.2.1.2 Also, they think about the environment
2.1.2.1.2.1 Choosing the process with a low impact
2.1.3 Fertilisers
2.1.3.1 we use about million tones every years.
2.1.3.2 fertilisers contain loads of ammonia
3 the chemical industry is huge
3.1 Bulk chemicals
3.1.1 larger scale
3.1.1.1 sulfuric acid
3.1.1.2 ammonia
3.2 Fine chemicals
3.2.1 smaller scale
3.2.1.1 drugs
3.2.1.2 Pesticides
4 the range of chemicals made in industry and laboratories in the UK is illustrated in the pie chart:
4.1 pharmaceutical 37%
4.2 paint, varnishes and painting inks 8%
4.3 fertilisers 1%
4.4 Fibers 1%
4.5 Others 28%
4.6 Plastic and rubber 8%
4.7 Toiletries and cleaning products 12%
4.8 Dyes 2%
4.9 Agrochemicals 3%
4.10 in the UK there are over 200 000 people employed in the chemical industry.
4.11 some chemicals are sold directly to consumers, while others are sold to other industries as raw materials for other products
5 Acids
5.1 substances have a ph less than 7
5.2 pure acidic compounds can be solids
5.2.1 citric acid used in food additives
5.2.2 tartaric acid
5.2.3 liquids
5.2.3.1 sulfuric acid
5.2.3.2 nitric acid
5.2.3.3 ethanoic acid found in vinger
5.2.4 Gases
5.2.4.1 hydrogen chloride
5.3 Acidic compounds produce aqueous hydrogen ions, H+ (aq) in water.
6 Alkalis
6.1 substances have ph scale more than 7
6.1.1 Common alkalis include
6.1.1.1 Sodium hydroxide used in cleaning products
6.1.1.2 potassium hydroxide used in alkaline batteries
6.1.1.3 calcium hydroxide used to neutralise acidic soils
6.2 Alkaline compounds produce aqueous hydroxide ions, OH-, in water
7 The PH scale is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution, across a 14-point scale