Reactions

Robin M
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Chemistry (Unit 2) Mind Map on Reactions, created by Robin M on 05/07/2013.

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Robin M
Created by Robin M over 6 years ago
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Reactions
1 Alkanes
1.1 Combustion
1.1.1 Exothermic
1.1.2 Non-Toxic Products
1.1.3 Example...

Annotations:

  • C3H8 + 5O2 ===> 3CO2 + 4H2O
1.2 Halogenation
1.2.1 Under UV Radiation
1.2.2 Free Radical Mechanism
1.2.2.1 Propagation
1.2.2.2 Initiation
1.2.2.3 Termination
1.2.3 Mixture of Products
1.2.4 Example...

Annotations:

  • CH4 +CL2 =UV=> CH3CL + HCL CH3CL+CL2 =UV=> CH2CL2 +HCL etc...
2 Alkenes
2.1 Combustion
2.1.1 Exothermic
2.1.2 Smoky Flame
2.1.3 Example...

Annotations:

  • 2C3H6 + 9O2 ===> 6CO2+6H2O
2.2 Electrophilic Addition
2.2.1 Bromination
2.2.1.1 With Bromine
2.2.1.1.1 Example...

Annotations:

  • H2C=CH2 + Br2  ===>              Br-H2C-CH2-Br (dibromoalkane)
2.2.1.2 With Bromine Water
2.2.1.2.1 Example...

Annotations:

  • H2C=CH2 + Br2 + H2O ===>      Br-H2C-CH2-OH + HBr (bromoalcohol)
2.2.1.2.2 Test for alkene
2.2.1.2.2.1 Decolourises
2.2.1.3 Can be in dark
2.2.2 Hydrobromination
2.2.2.1 Example...

Annotations:

  • H3C-CH=CH2 + HBR ===>
2.2.2.1.1 Major Product

Annotations:

  • H3C-CH(Br)-CH3
2.2.2.1.2 Minor Product

Annotations:

  • H3C-CH2-CH2-Br
2.3 Catalytic Addition
2.3.1 Hydrogenation
2.3.1.1 Example...

Annotations:

  • H2C=CH2 + H2 =Pt, High Temp, High Pressure=>H3C-CH3 
2.3.2 Hydration
2.3.2.1 Ethanol Manufacture
2.3.2.2 Example...

Annotations:

  • H2C=CH2(g) + H2O(g) =H3PO4, High Pressure, 300C=>           H3C-CH2-OH
2.4 Oxidative Addition
2.4.1 Test for alkenes
2.4.2 Example...

Annotations:

  • H2C=CH2 + [O] + H2O             [O]=KMnO4, Acid/Alkali=> HO-H2C-CH2-OH (diol) If acid, purple is decolourised.      If alkali, purple goes green 
2.5 Addition Polymerisation
2.5.1 Free Radical Mechanism
2.5.2 Example...

Annotations:

  • n H2C=CH2 =catalyst, pressure=> -(-H2C-CH2-)-n poly(ethene)
3 Halogenoalkanes
3.1 With Ammonia
3.1.1 Example...

Annotations:

  • R-X + NH3 =xs NH3, pressure, closed vessel=> R-NH2 + HX (primary amine) An additional mole of ammonia is required to react with HX formed. PTO for competing reaction...
  • R-X + R-NH2 ===> R2NH + HX (secondary amine)
3.2 With Aqueous KOH
3.2.1 Test For R-X

Annotations:

  • Neutralise with HNO3 Add AgNO3
3.2.1.1 White Precipitate:- R-Cl
3.2.1.2 Cream Precipitate:- R-Br
3.2.1.3 Yellow Precipitate:- R-I
3.2.2 Example...

Annotations:

  • R-X + OH^- =aqueous KOH=>   R-OH + X^-
3.2.3 Rate
3.2.3.1 R-I > R-Br > R-Cl
3.2.3.2 Tert. > Secd. > Pri.
3.3 With Ethanolic KOH
3.3.1 Elimination of HX
3.3.2 Example...

Annotations:

  • H3C-CH2X + OH^- =ethanolic KOH=> H2C=CH2 + H2O + X^-
4 Alcohols
4.1 With Sodium
4.1.1 Example...

Annotations:

  • 2C3H7OH +2Na ===>   2C3H7O^-Na^+ H2 (sodium propoxide)
4.2 Dehydration
4.2.1 Example...

Annotations:

  • C3H7OH =conc. H2SO4=>     H3C-HC=CH2 + H2O (alkene)
4.3 Halogenation
4.3.1 With Phosphorous trihalides
4.3.1.1 Examples...

Annotations:

  • For chloroalkane... 3C3H7OH + PCl3 ==>         3C3H7Cl +H3PO3
  • For bromoalkane... 3C3H7OH + P + 1.5Br2 =heat under reflux=> 3C3H7Br +H3PO3
  • For iodoalkane... 3C3H7OH + P + 1.5I2 =heat under reflux=> 3C3H7I +H3PO3
4.3.2 With PCl5
4.3.2.1 Test For OH Group
4.3.2.2 Example...

Annotations:

  • C3H7OH + PCl5 ==>         C3H7Cl + POCl3 + HCl (steamy fumes, turn damp litmus paper red) 
4.3.3 With Thionyl Chloride
4.3.3.1 Makes For Easily Purifiable Halogenoalkanes
4.3.3.2 Example...

Annotations:

  • C3H7OH + SOCl2 ==>     C3H7Cl + SO2(g) + HCl(g)
4.3.4 With Hydrogen Halides
4.3.4.1 Examples...

Annotations:

  • For chloroalkane...(CH3)3C-OH + HCl =conc. HCl=> C3H7Cl + H2O (only with tertiary alcohols)
  • For bromoalkane...C3H7OH + HBr =NaBr, conc. H2SO4, distill product=> C3H7Br +H2O
  • For iodoalkane... C3H7OH +HI =KI, conc. H3PO4, distill product=> C3H7I + H2O
4.4 Oxidation
4.4.1 Primary

Annotations:

  • R-CH2-OH + [O] =distilling=> R-C(=O)(-H) (aldehyde) [O] = K2Cr2O7 PTO if not distilled...
  • R-CH2-OH + 2[O] =boil under reflux=> R-C(=O)(-OH) (carboxylic acid)
4.4.2 Secondary

Annotations:

  • R2CH-OH + [O] ==> R-C(=O)(-R) (ketone)
4.4.3 Tertiary

Annotations:

  • R3C-OH + [O] ==> no reaction

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