Extracting Metals

emtheballerina
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Chemistry Mind Map on Extracting Metals, created by emtheballerina on 04/15/2014.

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emtheballerina
Created by emtheballerina over 5 years ago
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Extracting Metals
1 Limestone
1.1 Quarries
1.1.1 Noisy
1.1.2 Creates Jobs
1.1.3 Pollution
1.1.4 Better Healthcare
1.1.5 Damages Landscape
1.1.6 Improves Transport Links
1.1.7 Lots of Traffic created
1.2 Cement
1.2.1 Result of Heating Limestone and Clay
1.2.1.1 Limestone= Calcium Carbonate
1.2.1.1.1 Calcium Carbonate =
1.2.2 DOES NOT DRY OUT
1.2.3 Mortar
1.2.3.1 Mixing Cement, Sand and Water
1.2.3.2 DOES NOT DRY OUT
1.2.3.3 Binds bricks together
1.2.4 Concrete
1.2.4.1 Very Strong
1.2.4.2 DOES NOT DRY OUT
1.2.4.3 Mixing Cement, Sand, Gravel and Water
1.2.4.4 Used in foundations for buildings/bridges
1.3 Ores
1.3.1 Only used when the ore contains enough metal to make extraction worthwhile
1.3.2 Metal Oxides
1.3.2.1 Can be SMELTED directly
1.3.2.1.1 Smelting
1.3.2.1.1.1 The Ore is crushed and concentrated to remove rock containing little/no metal
1.3.2.2 Changed into metals by REDUCTION
1.3.2.2.1 Reduction
1.3.2.2.1.1 Removing the Oxygen from the compound
1.3.2.2.1.2 Heating in a furnace with carbon IF the metal is below carbon in the reactivity series
1.3.2.2.1.2.1 Limestone is added to remove impurities from the ore which forms slag
1.3.2.2.1.2.2 Metals ABOVE Carbon in the reactivity series are extracted using ELECTROLYSIS
1.3.2.2.1.2.2.1 Electrolysis produces Oxygen Gas
2 Iron
2.1 Blast Furnaces
2.1.1 Iron Ore, Coke and Limestone are fed into the top of the blast furnace
2.1.2 Molten Iron and Slag collect at the bottom
2.1.3 Carbon Monoxide is produced from burning Oxygen and Coke
2.1.3.1 Coke = pure Carbon
2.1.3.2 Carbon Monoxide reduces iron oxide to iron, and is oxidised to carbon dioxide
2.1.4 Produces iron
2.1.5 produces carbon dioxide
2.1.5.1 Carbon Monoxide reduces iron oxide to iron, and is oxidised to carbon dioxide
2.2 Limestone reacts with impurities and creates slag which floats on top of the iron
3 Oxidation
3.1 oxygen is added to a substance
4 Reduction
4.1 oxygen is removed from a substance