The Land Question

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Irish History Mind Map on The Land Question, created by twofirstnames on 04/22/2014.

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Created by twofirstnames over 5 years ago
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The Land Question
1 1870 Land Act
1.1 Ulster Custom
1.2 Bright Clause (only 800 tenants)
1.2.1 borrow 2/3 from gov
2 agricultural prosperity (1850s-70s)
2.1 Industrial Revolution- food exports
2.1.1 rents > 20 % behind prices
3 Crisis 1877 - 1879
3.1 weather
3.2 Great Depression
3.3 Michael Davitt
3.3.1 THE NEW DEPARTURE
3.3.1.1 John Devoy
3.3.1.2 Kickham and IRB Supreme Council refuse support
4 Mass Protest Meeting
4.1 Irishtown, Mayo
4.2 James Daly
4.2.1 Connaught Telegraph
4.3 1879
4.4 10,000
4.5 Galway and Mayo - rent reduction
4.6 Second Key Meeting
4.6.1 Westport
4.6.2 June 1879
4.6.3 Parnell
5 The Land League
5.1 Mayo August
5.2 National October
5.3 Parnell: Leader
5.3.1 parliamentary pressure
5.3.1.1 + Local agitation
5.3.2 fundraising tour of US
5.3.2.1 > £70,000 for famine relief + League
5.4 3 Aims

Annotations:

  • 1. Achieve 3 Fs 2. end rack-renting, eviction, landlord oppression 3. peasant proprietorship
5.5 BOYCOTTING
5.5.1 Speech at Ennis, Co. Clare 1880
5.5.1.1 Parnell
6 LAND WAR
6.1 not supported by L.L.
6.2 crimes
6.2.1 Killing and maiming of cattle
6.2.2 burning of barns
6.3 escalated by secret agrarian societies
6.3.1 whiteboys
6.4 huge increase in land-related crimes
6.4.1 just over 200 in 1877
6.4.1.1 over 4000 in 1881
7 Gov. Reaction
7.1 Gladstone - 1880
7.2 LAW AND ORDER
7.2.1 Coercion
7.2.1.1 obstructionism banned
7.2.1.2 Davitt rearrested
7.2.1.3 WALK OUT
7.2.2 W. E. Forster
7.3 1881 Land Act
7.3.1 Ulster Custom
7.3.2 land court
7.3.3 scheme - borrow 3/4
7.3.4 flaws!!!
7.3.4.1 arrears
7.3.4.2 written agreements
7.3.5 L.L. REACTION
7.3.5.1 abstention of HR
7.3.5.2 Parnell: October 1881: Prison
7.3.5.3 NO RENT MANIFESTO
7.3.5.3.1 L. L. illegal
7.3.5.3.1.1 CAPTAIN MOONLIGHT
8 KILMAINHAM TREATY
8.1 spring 1882
8.2 leaseholders admitted
8.3 tenants in arrears assisted
8.4 drop coercion
9 Ashbourne Act 1885
9.1 borrow total price
9.1.1 49 years!!
9.2 V. POPULAR
9.2.1 25,000 tenants
10 Plan of Campaign
10.1 October 1886
10.2 "A Plan of Campaign"
10.2.1 United Ireland
10.2.2 Timothy O'Brian
10.3 support
10.3.1 not Parnell
10.3.2 John Dillon & William O'Brian
10.4 System of collective action
10.4.1 if refused rent reduction
10.4.1.1 lodge money in fund
10.4.1.1.1 campaign against landlordism
10.4.1.1.2 support evicted
10.5 In operation >100 estates end 1886
10.5.1 Parnell tries to stop it
10.5.1.1 compromise
10.5.1.1.1 continue where in operation
11 Gov. Reaction
11.1 Arthur Balfour: Chief Secretary
11.1.1 3 Pronged Approach
11.1.1.1 Coercion
11.1.1.1.1 summer 1887 Coercion Act
11.1.1.1.2 Bloody Balfour
11.1.1.1.3 encouraged police to take strong line
11.1.1.1.4 over 20 HR MPS serve time during POC
11.1.1.2 Pope Leo XIII
11.1.1.2.1 sent Archbishop Ignaz Persico 1887
11.1.1.2.2 Letter condemning POC 1888
11.1.1.2.2.1 maj. bishops avoid open support
11.1.1.3 Landlords
11.1.1.3.1 e.g. Arthur Smith-Barry
11.2 1887
12 END OF P.O.C 1890
12.1 DEADLOCK 17 estates
12.1.1 (success 84, failure 15)
12.2 Parnellite Split
12.2.1 Land movement less effective
12.2.2 contributed to rift
12.3 hardship of tenants
12.3.1 some not restored 1907
13 Balfour Land Act 1891
13.1 Land Purchase Scheme
13.1.1 gov advance £33 million in loans
13.1.1.1 49 years
13.1.2 OVER 47,000!!!
13.2 Congested Districts Board
13.2.1 assistance to SW
13.2.1.1 development of home industries
13.2.1.2 advice and instructions
13.2.1.3 redistribution of land
13.2.1.4 part-financing infrastructure
13.2.2 UNTIL 1923
13.2.3 did not eradicate underlying causes
14 Horace Plunkett
14.1 returned Ireland 1889
14.2 Problem
14.2.1 Primary Level: production
14.2.1.1 poor quality
14.2.1.2 Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction
14.2.1.2.1 1895
14.2.1.2.2 out of findings of a Recess Committee
14.2.1.2.2.1 Ireland: Overtaxed
14.2.1.2.3 1899
14.2.1.2.4 qualified instructors
14.2.1.2.5 grants to tech schools + colleges
14.2.2 Secondary Level: distribution
14.2.2.1 middlemen
14.2.2.2 1894
14.2.2.2.1 Irish Agricultural Organisation Society
14.2.2.2.1.1 30 existing co-ops 1889
14.2.2.2.1.2 "The Irish Homestead"
14.2.2.2.1.2.1 ed. George Russel
14.3 member of CDB 1891
14.4 MP for South Dublin 1892
14.5 criticism
14.5.1 John Dillon: Killing HR
14.5.2 shopkeepers etc
14.5.3 "Ireland in the New Century"
14.5.3.1 1904
14.5.3.1.1 Role of Cath. Church
15 United Irish League 1898
15.1 William O'Brian
15.2 breakup of lge. Connaught ranches
15.3 100,000 members by 1901
15.3.1 avoid Land War
15.4 Land Conference 1902-1903
15.4.1 called by Galway landlord John Shawe-Taylor
15.4.1.1 support: Balfour (PM) + Wyndham (Chief Secretary)
15.4.2 chairman: Lord Dunraven
15.4.3 Redmond, O'Brian and Timothy Harrington
16 Wyndham Land Act 1903
16.1 £70 million in loans
16.1.1 68 years
16.2 landlords: higher prices
16.3 Gov pays legal costs
16.4 higher prices to landlords who sell whole estate
16.5 HUGE SUCCESS
16.5.1 between 1903 and 1909 - +270,000
17 Birrell Land Act 1909