Mind Map by Jackj888, updated more than 1 year ago


Biology (Topic 1: Lifestyle, Health and Risk) Mind Map on CARBOHYDRATES, created by Jackj888 on 05/08/2013.

Resource summary

1.1 Most carbohydrates are large and complex chains of monosaccharides, however single monosaccharides are also carbohydrates.
1.1.1 Glucose is a monosachharide with 6 carbon atoms, and comes in two types, alpha and beta glucose. Learn them. Glucose's structure relates to its function as the main energy source in animals. It is soluble so can be easily transported, and it's bonds contain a lot of energy.
2.1 Monosaccharides join together by condensation reactions and form glycosidic bonds. A hydrogen atom on one monosaccharide bonds to the hydroxyl group on the other, releasing a water molecule.
2.1.1 The reverse reaction is a hydrolysis reaction, where a molecule of water reacts with the glycosidic bond breaking it apart. Two monosaccharides make a disaccharides. Two a-glucose molecules join together to form maltose, B-glucose and galactose form lactose with a 1-4 glycosidic bond, and a-glucose and fructose for sucrose with a 1-2 glycosidic bond.
3.1 Starch - The main energy storage in plants
3.1.1 Cells get energy from glucose, plants store excess glucose as starch, which is broken down when in need of energy, starch is a mixture of the polysaccharides amylose and amylopectin. Amylose - A long unbranched chain of a-glucose, consisting of 1-4 glycosidic bonds, the angle of these bonds give amylose a coiled structure. Making it compact and therefore good for storage. Amylopectin - A long branched chain of a-glucose consisting of 1-4 glycosidic bonds, and 1-6 glycosidic bonds. These branches allow energy to be released quickly, It is also very compact. Its a large molecule so stores a lot of energy. Starch will not swell through osmosis as it is insoluble.
3.2 Glycogen - The main energy storage material in animals
3.2.1 Similar to starch animal cells get energy from glucose, however it is stored in glycogen, another polysaccharide of a-glucose Its structure is similar to amylopectin, having 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bons, but it has far more side branches so that stored glucose can be quickly released and energy can get into animal cells quicker, important for energy release in animals. Again it is a large but compact molecule, so it stores a lot of energy. Like starch, glycogen's also insoluble in water, so it doesn't cause cells to swell by osmosis.
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